hypothalamic hamartoma

Hypothalamic Hamartoma

Hypothalamic hamartoma is a rare benign hypothalamic tumor that resembles a gangliocytoma in histological characteristics. Etiological factors are not precisely established. The neoplasm is manifested by epileptic seizures, a decrease in cognitive abilities, and an advance in the pace of puberty. To diagnose hypothalamic neoplasia, electroencephalography and cerebral MR scanning are required. Treatment includes anticonvulsants,…

secondary parkinsonism

Secondary Parkinsonism

Secondary parkinsonism is a clinical term that combines all cases of the appearance of parkinsonism syndrome caused by the influence of various factors affecting the central nervous system or the presence of a primary disease. Unlike Parkinson’s disease, secondary Parkinsonism has a more acute onset, is characterized by the initial symmetry of Parkinsonian manifestations and…

Paramyotonia congenita

Paramyotonia Сongenita

Paramyotonia congenita is a separate clinical variant of myotonia inherited in an autosomal dominant way and characterized by the occurrence of myotonic episodes under the influence of cold. In the clinic of the disease, there are also paroxysms of transient muscle weakness. The diagnostic algorithm includes assessment of neurological status, biochemical blood examination, electroneuromyography, genealogical…

congenital myopathy

Congenital Myopathy

Congenital myopathy is a congenital disease caused by genetically determined disorders in the structure of muscle tissue. Disease is manifested by diffuse muscle weakness and a decrease in muscle tone, the severity of which varies significantly depending on the type of myopathy. In severe cases, congenital myopathy can lead to the death of a child…

inflammatory polyneuropathy

Inflammatory Polyneuropathy

Inflammatory polyneuropathy is a multiple lesion of nerve trunks, the substrate of which is an inflammatory reaction of autoimmune genesis. It is manifested by rapidly or slowly progressive sluggish paresis with sensitivity disorder, sometimes with damage to the cranial nerves, paralysis of the respiratory muscles. Diagnostics is carried out using electrophysiological studies, analysis of cerebrospinal…

inflammatory myopathy

Inflammatory Myopathy

Inflammatory myopathy is an inflammatory process that occurs mainly in skeletal muscles and leads to their degenerative changes. Disease is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle pain, a sharp decrease in the volume of active movements, the development of contractures, compaction and swelling of muscles. Of the diagnostic methods, the most informative is the determination of…

intracranial hypertension

Intracranial Hypertension

Intracranial hypertension is a syndrome of increased intracranial pressure. It can be idiopathic or develop with various brain lesions. The clinical picture consists of headache with pressure on the eyes, nausea and vomiting, sometimes — transient visual disturbances; in severe cases, there is a violation of consciousness. The diagnosis is made taking into account clinical…

tumors of cerebral hemispheres

Tumors of Cerebral Hemispheres

Tumors of cerebral hemispheres are benign and malignant tumors located directly in the tissues of the brain. Tumors of the cerebral hemispheres are manifested by cerebral (headache, stagnation of the optic nerve discs, dizziness, vomiting, mental disorders) and focal (motor disorders, loss of sensitivity, visual disorders, speech disorders, neuro-endocrine syndrome, etc.) symptoms. Diagnosis of brain…