MRI abdominal cavity is a modern diagnostic method based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and used to determine pathological changes in internal organs. With the help of the procedure, it is possible to visualize hollow and parenchymal structures: liver, kidneys, pancreas, spleen. It is possible to assess the condition of blood and lymphatic vessels located in this anatomical zone. The study makes it possible to diagnose degenerative, inflammatory and tumor processes, determine the movement of physiological fluids, and identify traumatic injuries. It is often performed in conjunction with retroperitoneal MRI.
MRI is of clinical importance in the diagnosis of tumor processes in the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space. It is especially important to conduct a scan in the presence of neoplasias prone to rapid growth and metastasis, in particular, in case of suspected liver angiosarcoma. MRI abdominal cavity allows to determine the exact localization and size of the pathological focus, to establish the presence of metastases and their prevalence.
Magnetic resonance imaging is recommended both as an additional diagnostic method and for various gastrointestinal diseases: pancreatitis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver. If there are contraindications to X-ray and endoscopic examinations, MRI abdominal cavity is used in the diagnosis of diseases of hollow organs (gallbladder, bile ducts, intestines). Using contrast scanning, it is possible to visualize the ducts of the gallbladder and pancreas, to detect inflammation, the presence of stones.
MRI is prescribed if necessary to diagnose ischemic and purulent processes, in particular, abscess in the abdominal cavity, liver, pancreas. The procedure is also carried out to identify cysts, foreign bodies, infiltrates, to determine the degree of traumatic injuries and their consequences. MRI is performed if it is necessary to confirm parasitic invasions: amoebic abscesses, echinococcal cysts, alveococcosis, hepatosplenomegaly.
MRI abdominal cavity allows you to determine hidden bleeding, assess the level of blood flow in the abdominal aorta and other large vessels of this area, as well as diagnose thrombotic lesions, aneurysms, areas of narrowing. In addition, MRI is used to diagnose congenital anomalies and dystrophic changes in internal organs. Specialists can send for magnetic resonance imaging in case of pain in the right hypochondrium and in the projection area of the pancreas, in the presence of constant nausea or repeated vomiting, changes in the color of urine and feces, with jaundice of the skin.
Despite the safety of MRI, there are conditions in which scanning cannot be performed. Absolute contraindications include the presence of a metal structure, a pacemaker, an infusion insulin pump, artificial vascular valves and clips in the patient. It is impossible to prescribe an MRI abdominal cavity with a cochlear implant or a cava filter installed. It is not recommended to scan for shrapnel wounds, when there is no confidence in the complete extraction of all fragments. Under the influence of a magnetic field, the operation of electronic devices is disrupted, metal elements can heat up and even move, which poses a danger to the health and life of the patient.
When using a contrast agent, MRI abdominal cavity is contraindicated in the presence of allergies to the drug, as well as in the case of severe renal insufficiency, since the substance used is excreted from the body through the kidneys. The pregnancy period is also considered as a contraindication to the scan due to the possible negative effect of the contrast agent on the fetus. For the same reason, MRI is not recommended during lactation. If contrast is used, a woman should exclude breastfeeding for 2 days. A relative contraindication is the need for constant monitoring of the patient’s condition and ventilation.
MRI abdominal cavity is not performed if the subject has severe pain, tremor, in case it is impossible to hold his breath, since any movements can lead to distortion of the images. If necessary, the study in such situations can be carried out using anesthesia. The same applies to young children who cannot remain motionless for a long time. Claustrophobia and severe obesity are considered relative contraindications. If you are afraid of closed spaces, it is possible to use open-type devices, if you are obese, it is possible to conduct research on equipment with increased load capacity.
At the initial stage of the examination, the patient is assigned an ultrasound and X-ray examination of the pathological zone. When using contrast, kidney function is evaluated and a test for sensitivity to the drug is performed. To improve visualization during the week before the MRI abdominal cavity, it is recommended to follow a carb-free diet, for two days to abandon the use of products that increase gas formation: black bread, fresh vegetables and fruits, legumes. 6-8 hours before the manipulation, you need to refrain from eating. You can drink water no later than 4 hours before the MRI abdominal cavity. 40-60 minutes before the scan, it is required to take activated charcoal or another enterosorbent to minimize the process of gas formation in the intestine.
Methodology of conducting
Immediately before starting an abdominal MRI, the patient should put on underwear made of natural fabrics, remove any metal objects. Personal belongings, including a mobile phone and bank cards, must be left in the operator’s office. The patient lies down on the table, which is moved into the capsule of the tomograph, after which the scanning process begins. During the MRI, the patient must remain motionless to avoid distortions in the images. The contrast agent is administered intravenously before the start of the scan. At this moment, there may be a feeling of heat, chills. Such a reaction may occur to contrast and does not require medical attention, all symptoms disappear on their own. At a certain stage, the diagnostician may ask the patient to hold his breath.
MRI abdominal cavity lasts in the range of 30-120 minutes, depending on the size of the examined area, the thickness of the slice. Upon completion of the scan, the diagnostician can make preliminary conclusions about the patient’s health. It will take from 2-3 hours to several days to decipher the results. The patient receives a written conclusion and photographs, which are stored on an electronic medium. In the presence of pathological changes in the abdominal cavity, the patient should contact his attending physician (therapist, gastroenterologist, angiologist, abdominal surgeon, etc. d.) to clarify the diagnosis and determine the treatment plan.