Femur x-ray is prescribed for suspected fracture of the femoral diaphysis and osteomyelitis. In other areas of medicine, the technique is used for developmental anomalies, benign and malignant neoplasia. The standard study is performed in direct and lateral projections. To take a direct picture, the patient is laid on his back. Legs are straight. Femur x-ray in the lateral projection is carried out in a position on the side with a deviation of the body and the healthy leg posteriorly so that the shadows from the hip of the healthy leg are not superimposed on the injured leg.
Femur x-ray can be prescribed in the following cases:
- Injury. In this case, there may be aching or acute pain in the hip, noticeable visual deformation, swelling and redness, limited leg movement or complete immobility.
- The need to monitor surgical treatment. After fractures, it is important to assess how correctly the bone fragments are compared and how quickly they heal.
- If there is a suspected tumor of the femur and soft tissues, as well as metastases.
- If purulent, inflammatory diseases of the bone tissue are suspected: osteomyelitis, periostitis.
- If degenerative diseases of the femoral bone are suspected (aseptic necrosis of the femoral head).
X-ray can reliably identify the following pathological situations:
- fractures, fractures of the femoral bones;
- the presence of bone fragments and their displacement;
- tumors in the femur and surrounding soft tissues;
- deformity of the hip bone due to illness or injury.
Femur x-ray is a simple, non-invasive procedure that does not cause the patient any discomfort or pain and does not require special training. Before it, the patient needs to take off metal jewelry, undress below the waist and tell the radiologist about the presence of any metal implants or prostheses in the body, if any.
Methodology of conducting
The patient lies down on the desktop of the X-ray machine, the marking of which indicates the zone of exposure to ionizing rays. Parts of the body that are not subject to examination (especially the thyroid gland and genitals) are protected with lead aprons.
To shoot in a direct projection, the subject lies on his back with his legs stretched out. For lateral projection, he must assume a lying position on his side with his body tilted back and the other leg. You need to hold this pose until the end of the study. The entire diagnostic procedure lasts no more than 5-7 minutes.
When deciphering the image, the radiologist determines the presence of markers of a particular pathology:
- the fracture is indicated by bone fragments, sometimes displaced;
- with dislocation, there is a displacement of the joints;
- with a decrease in bone density, osteoporosis can be suspected;
- dysplasia of the femoral head is indicated by its pathological development, incorrect position in the hip joint;
- neoplasms that are visualized on X-ray images of the femur as dark foci speak of tumor diseases (including enostoma).
A description of the images is given by a specialist radiologist. He does not establish a definite diagnosis, but only describes the features of the anatomical structure of the bone and its relationship with other adjacent bone elements. Also, the radiologist indicates the presence of neoplasms of a pathological nature, if the patient has them. With a ready-made study protocol, the patient is sent to the attending physician, who, based on the description provided and the results of other diagnostic procedures, makes a diagnosis and prescribes treatment.
Normal indicators and detectable pathologies
Normally, there should be no pathological darkening on the obtained femoral X-ray images. If a person is healthy, the outlines of his bones are clear, their structure is uniform. The location of the femur bone, as well as its size, is estimated from the pictures. Thickening or, conversely, a decrease in the size of the bone indicates a developing pathology. In oncological diseases, foci of destruction of the upper layer of bone tissue can be observed in the hip area.f the images show shaded areas on the white areas of the bones, osteoporosis may be diagnosed.
There are no absolute contraindications to femur x-ray. It is undesirable to conduct femur x-ray for pregnant women and children younger than 6 months.