Mammology is an independent branch of medicine that studies the structure of a woman’s mammary glands, the physiological processes occurring in them, as well as the prevention and treatment of emerging breast diseases. Mammology is interconnected with other medical disciplines that study a woman’s body: gynecology, endocrinology, as well as surgery and oncology. Breast diseases can occur in women at different age periods. The age over 40 years is considered the most dangerous in relation to oncological pathology of the mammary glands. Women during this period need to regularly self-monitor the breast, undergo its X-ray examination and ultrasound.

The mammary glands of a woman are paired glands of external secretion. Their main function in the female body is lactation, i.e. milk production, which ensures the feeding of an infant. Therefore, the mammary glands are called mammary glands in another way.

Like no other organ, the mammary glands are influenced by all the processes occurring in the female body: the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation, menopause – the breast reacts to all this with its anatomical and physiological changes.

Despite the fact that most of a woman’s life, the mammary glands are “at rest”, but as a hormone-dependent organ, they undergo complex changes due to the physiology of the female body. And the occurrence of most breast diseases is associated with hormonal disorders.

So, with endocrine disorders in the mammary gland, benign formations may occur – mastopathy, cyst and fibroma of the mammary gland. Their development is often associated with abortions, as well as inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive organs that violate the hormonal function of the ovaries and other endocrine glands.

Breast diseases leading to its inflammation – mastitis, develop, as a rule, during breastfeeding: these are lactostasis and nipple cracks.

Of particular concern to mammologists-oncologists is the increase in the number of malignant tumors (breast cancer). Injuries and inflammatory diseases of the breast, abortions, sexual infections, late (after 35 years) first pregnancy and childbirth, endocrine disorders, bad habits, ecology and heredity predispose to their development.

An important role in the prevention of breast diseases is played by timely treatment of genital pathology, compliance with personal hygiene and breastfeeding rules, self-monitoring, regular visits to specialists: gynecologist and mammologist.

Every woman should carefully examine her mammary glands on the 6th-12th day of the menstrual cycle on a monthly basis. If the first alarming symptoms are detected, it is urgently necessary to consult a mammologist.

A particular mammological disease may be indicated by the appearance of at least one of the complaints in a woman: compaction, soreness in the breast, the appearance of discharge from the nipples, skin changes on the chest and in the nipple area, a change in the shape of the gland, an increase in lymph nodes in the axillary zones.

After 35 years, women need to undergo breast ultrasound once a year, and after 40 – mammography once every 2 years. You should visit a mammologist if you are planning pregnancy or taking oral contraceptives.

Today, most of the breast diseases detected in a timely manner are successfully treated conservatively. Surgical treatment of mammological pathology is aimed at the most careful preservation of the organ and its function.

The Medical Directory of Diseases details the main diseases of the mammary glands, describes the methods of their diagnosis and treatment. This can help you to independently assess the condition of your breasts and recognize the symptoms of an incipient disease in time.

Beautiful and healthy breasts are the pride of the woman herself, the envy of her friends and the object of men’s attention. On the website “Medic Journal” you will always find useful information on how to keep your breasts healthy and attractive for many years.



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