Mammology is an independent branch of medicine that studies the structure of a woman’s mammary glands, the physiological processes occurring in them, as well as the prevention and treatment of emerging breast diseases. Mammology is interconnected with other medical disciplines that study a woman’s body: gynecology, endocrinology, as well as surgery and oncology. Breast diseases can occur in women at different age periods. The age over 40 years is considered the most dangerous in relation to oncological pathology of the mammary glands. Women during this period need to regularly self-monitor the breast, undergo its X-ray examination and ultrasound.

The mammary glands of a woman are paired glands of external secretion. Their main function in the female body is lactation, i.e. milk production, which ensures the feeding of an infant. Therefore, the mammary glands are called mammary glands in another way.

Like no other organ, the mammary glands are influenced by all the processes occurring in the female body: the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation, menopause – the breast reacts to all this with its anatomical and physiological changes.

Despite the fact that most of a woman’s life, the mammary glands are “at rest”, but as a hormone-dependent organ, they undergo complex changes due to the physiology of the female body. And the occurrence of most breast diseases is associated with hormonal disorders.

So, with endocrine disorders in the mammary gland, benign formations may occur – mastopathy, cyst and fibroma of the mammary gland. Their development is often associated with abortions, as well as inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive organs that violate the hormonal function of the ovaries and other endocrine glands.

Breast diseases leading to its inflammation – mastitis, develop, as a rule, during breastfeeding: these are lactostasis and nipple cracks.

Of particular concern to mammologists-oncologists is the increase in the number of malignant tumors (breast cancer). Injuries and inflammatory diseases of the breast, abortions, sexual infections, late (after 35 years) first pregnancy and childbirth, endocrine disorders, bad habits, ecology and heredity predispose to their development.

An important role in the prevention of breast diseases is played by timely treatment of genital pathology, compliance with personal hygiene and breastfeeding rules, self-monitoring, regular visits to specialists: gynecologist and mammologist.

Every woman should carefully examine her mammary glands on the 6th-12th day of the menstrual cycle on a monthly basis. If the first alarming symptoms are detected, it is urgently necessary to consult a mammologist.

A particular mammological disease may be indicated by the appearance of at least one of the complaints in a woman: compaction, soreness in the breast, the appearance of discharge from the nipples, skin changes on the chest and in the nipple area, a change in the shape of the gland, an increase in lymph nodes in the axillary zones.

After 35 years, women need to undergo breast ultrasound once a year, and after 40 – mammography once every 2 years. You should visit a mammologist if you are planning pregnancy or taking oral contraceptives.

Today, most of the breast diseases detected in a timely manner are successfully treated conservatively. Surgical treatment of mammological pathology is aimed at the most careful preservation of the organ and its function.

The Medical Directory of Diseases details the main diseases of the mammary glands, describes the methods of their diagnosis and treatment. This can help you to independently assess the condition of your breasts and recognize the symptoms of an incipient disease in time.

Beautiful and healthy breasts are the pride of the woman herself, the envy of her friends and the object of men’s attention. On the website “Medic Journal” you will always find useful information on how to keep your breasts healthy and attractive for many years.

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Fibrocystic breast disease is a disease manifested by proliferative and regressive changes in breast tissues. Develops due to hormonal imbalance. Risk factors include gynecological diseases, pathologies of the central endocrine organs, metabolic disorders. Disease is manifested by soreness, compaction and swelling of the mammary glands. Ultrasound and mammography, gynecological examination, and an expanded hormonal profile…

Nipple Fissure

Nipple fissure are a defect, damage to the integrity of the skin on the nipples of the mammary glands. They are manifested by sharp soreness with irradiation into the scapula when feeding a child. They can be complicated by infection of wounds, the development of nipple candidiasis, mastitis. If cracks are infected, there is a…

Breast Sarcoma

Breast sarcoma is a malignant non-epithelial neoplasm of the breast characterized by rapid growth and desemination, an unfavorable course. Sarcoma is manifested by the presence of a dense lumpy tumor in the mammary gland, thinning and hyperemia of the skin over the formation, expansion of the network of subcutaneous veins. Detection is performed on the…

Paget’s disease of the breast

Paget’s disease of the breast is a form of breast cancer that occurs with a lesion of the nipple-areolar complex. Disease is manifested by itching, burning, nodular compaction and erosion in the periarticular area, discharge from the nipple. Diagnosis is based on clinical and cytological data, results of mammography, breast ultrasound, MRI. Treatment includes a…

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the breast. Local manifestations: breast shape change, nipple retraction, skin wrinkling, nipple discharge (often bloody), probing of seals, nodules, enlargement of supraclavicular or axillary lymph nodes. Surgical treatment in combination with radiation or chemotherapy in the early stages is most effective. In the later stages, tumor metastasis to…


Mastopathy is pathological fibrocystic changes in breast tissue characterized by the appearance of dense, often painful fine–grained formations. They are concerned about swelling, tenderness of the gland, more pronounced before menstruation, serous, sometimes bloody discharge from the nipple. Has a tendency to relapse, is a cancer risk factor. Diagnosis of mastopathy requires mammography, breast ultrasound,…


Mastodynia is cyclical or persistent pain in the mammary glands caused by fluctuations in hormone levels or pathological processes in the breast and other organs. It is manifested by pain, hypersensitivity, discomfort in the area of the mammary glands and their swelling. With symptomatic mastalgia, the symptoms of the underlying disease are determined. Ultrasound, mammography,…


Mastitis is an inflammatory process in the tissues of the breast. It is manifested by severe bursting pains in the chest, swelling, compaction, redness of the gland skin, a sharp rise in body temperature, chills. Pathology is diagnosed with a visual examination by a mammologist, breast ultrasound is additionally possible. The disease can lead to…


Lipomastia is an excessive deposition of fat in the chest in men. It is manifested by an increase in the volume of the mammary glands, a displacement of the nipple and areola downwards. There are no subjective complaints. Breast ultrasound and laboratory research methods are used in the diagnosis. To correct the disorder, it is…

Lipoma in Breast

Lipoma in breast is a benign breast tumor originating from adipose tissue. Usually, the growth of neoplasia is not accompanied by pain or other uncomfortable sensations. Lipoma is detected randomly in the form of a rounded, smooth, elastic, painless volumetric formation. It is diagnosed using ultrasound, mammography and cytological analysis of the material obtained by…