Gastroenterology is a special discipline that studies the structure, physiology and pathology of the digestive system, as well as issues of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive system. Within gastroenterology there are narrower sections: for example, liver and gallbladder diseases are studied by hepatology, pathology of the large intestine and pararectal space – proctology. The state of the endocrine system, the oral cavity, and the presence of infectious agents in the body have a great influence on the normal activity of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.

The digestive system includes a set of many organs and glands that provide the nutrients necessary for the body to develop and function. It permeates almost the entire body, starting with the oral cavity and ending with the rectum. Therefore, the pathology of even one of the digestive organs entails a disorder of the functioning of the digestive system as a whole. Modern ecology, stress, new foods and supplements, as well as medications cause the occurrence or exacerbation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Diseases of the digestive system are so common that every person meets with their manifestations at least once in their life. Among the diseases of the digestive tract, the undisputed leaders are inflammatory processes of its various departments that have an acute or chronic course: inflammation of the esophagus (esophagitis), stomach (gastritis), duodenum (duodenitis), liver (hepatitis), pancreas (pancreatitis), gallbladder and ducts (cholecystitis and cholangitis), small and large intestines (enteritis and colitis), rectum (proctitis). They, in turn, cause changes in the mucous membrane of organs, their motor function and lead to ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, cholelithiasis, ulcerative colitis. A serious problem of modern society is intestinal dysbiosis, which occurs in the vast majority of people, including newborn children.

Diseases of the stomach, pancreas, intestines often serve as the root cause of many diseases of the skin and metabolism. The symptoms of diseases of the digestive system are very diverse and depend on the affected organ. Common manifestations are impaired appetite, abdominal pain, belching, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, stool disorder, weakness, weight loss.

Modern gastroenterology has great diagnostic capabilities that allow us to recognize diseases of the digestive system already at the early stages of occurrence. Laboratory tests include blood tests, gastric and duodenal juice, feces, intestinal microflora, tissue samples taken during biopsy. X-ray and endoscopic methods (esophagoscopy, colonoscopy, gastroduodenoscopy, etc.) are used to examine the hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract, ultrasound diagnostics are used for parenchymal. Many chronic diseases of the digestive system, which subsequently require surgical intervention, are caused by neglect or undertreatment of an acute condition. Therefore, the occurrence of any pathological manifestation in the digestive system should serve as a signal to immediately contact a specialist gastroenterologist. In the treatment of diseases of the digestive system, the patient will be required to strictly follow the treatment regimen and diet.

dubin-johnson syndrome

Dubin-Johnson Syndrome

Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a chronic hereditary disease characterized by a violation of the release of bilirubin from hepatocytes into bile. The main clinical manifestation is intermittent jaundice. The disease is also characterized by dyspeptic disorders, decreased appetite and deterioration of general well-being. Diagnosis includes biochemical blood and urine tests, bromsulfalein assay, instrumental techniques (ultrasound, laparoscopy,…

parasitic liver diseases

Parasitic Liver Diseases

Parasitic liver diseases are a group of heterogeneous diseases caused by parasites and helminths. The most common liver parasitoses are ascariasis, echinococcosis, amoebiasis, opisthorchiasis, etc. Common symptoms include exhaustion, dystrophic changes in the skin and hair, increased fatigue, sleep disorders, bad breath. In diagnostics, duodenal probing, examination of duodenal contents, analysis of feces for helminth…

spleen abscess

Spleen Abscess

Spleen abscess is a limited accumulation of purulent exudate in the spleen from the surrounding tissues. The disease is characterized by increasing weakness, fever, nausea and vomiting. Pain sensations are localized in the left hypochondrium, radiate to the left half of the body, and increase when breathing. Diagnostics includes a surgeon’s examination, ultrasound or CT…

pancreatic abscess

Pancreatic Abscess

Pancreatic abscess is a cavity filled with pus and necrotic masses in the gland tissue. In the vast majority of cases, it develops after acute alcoholic pancreatitis. It is characterized by the appearance of fever, shingles, leukocytosis, tumor-like formation in the abdominal cavity about two weeks after an attack of pancreatitis. The diagnosis is established…

liver abscess

Liver Abscess

Liver abscess is a limited cavity located in the liver and filled with pus. Develops as a result of other diseases or primary lesions. It is manifested by pain in the right hypochondrium, fever, jaundice of the skin. The diagnosis is made by collecting anamnesis, examination, ultrasound of the liver, the use of auxiliary research…

intestinal abscess

Intestinal Abscess

Intestinal abscess is a purulent lesion of the intestinal wall, which is a consequence of the transition of the purulent-inflammatory process from nearby organs or lymphogenic or hematogenic spread of infection from other foci. The disease can occur with rapidly developing symptoms, hyperthermia, severe pain syndrome against the background of a severe general condition or…

abscess of douglas space

Abscess of Douglas space

Abscess of Douglas space is an encapsulated purulent focus located in the utero-rectal (rectal-vesicular) recess of the pelvis. The clinic is characterized by nonspecific manifestations (intoxication, febrile fever, chills) and local symptoms (pain in the lower abdomen, dysuric phenomena, frequent urge to defecate). Diagnosis includes rectal and vaginal (in women) examination, pelvic ultrasound, CT, puncture…

abdominal abscess

Abdominal Abscess

Abdominal abscess is a limited abscess in the abdominal cavity enclosed in a pyogenic capsule. The features of the clinic depend on the localization and size of the purulent focus; common manifestations of abdominal abscess are pain and local tension of the abdominal muscles, fever, intestinal obstruction, nausea, etc. Diagnosis of an abscess includes an…

aberrant pancreas

Aberrant pancreas

Aberrant pancreas is a heterotopy of pancreatic glandular tissue in the wall of the stomach, intestines or other abdominal organs. The anomaly is characterized by scant clinical manifestations with a predominance of dyspeptic disorders. Complicated forms of pathology manifest as a symptom complex of “acute abdomen”, gastrointestinal hemorrhages. Diagnostics is based on instrumental methods: ultrasound,…