Gastroenterology is a special discipline that studies the structure, physiology and pathology of the digestive system, as well as issues of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive system. Within gastroenterology there are narrower sections: for example, liver and gallbladder diseases are studied by hepatology, pathology of the large intestine and pararectal space – proctology. The state of the endocrine system, the oral cavity, and the presence of infectious agents in the body have a great influence on the normal activity of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.

The digestive system includes a set of many organs and glands that provide the nutrients necessary for the body to develop and function. It permeates almost the entire body, starting with the oral cavity and ending with the rectum. Therefore, the pathology of even one of the digestive organs entails a disorder of the functioning of the digestive system as a whole. Modern ecology, stress, new foods and supplements, as well as medications cause the occurrence or exacerbation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Diseases of the digestive system are so common that every person meets with their manifestations at least once in their life. Among the diseases of the digestive tract, the undisputed leaders are inflammatory processes of its various departments that have an acute or chronic course: inflammation of the esophagus (esophagitis), stomach (gastritis), duodenum (duodenitis), liver (hepatitis), pancreas (pancreatitis), gallbladder and ducts (cholecystitis and cholangitis), small and large intestines (enteritis and colitis), rectum (proctitis). They, in turn, cause changes in the mucous membrane of organs, their motor function and lead to ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, cholelithiasis, ulcerative colitis. A serious problem of modern society is intestinal dysbiosis, which occurs in the vast majority of people, including newborn children.

Diseases of the stomach, pancreas, intestines often serve as the root cause of many diseases of the skin and metabolism. The symptoms of diseases of the digestive system are very diverse and depend on the affected organ. Common manifestations are impaired appetite, abdominal pain, belching, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, stool disorder, weakness, weight loss.

Modern gastroenterology has great diagnostic capabilities that allow us to recognize diseases of the digestive system already at the early stages of occurrence. Laboratory tests include blood tests, gastric and duodenal juice, feces, intestinal microflora, tissue samples taken during biopsy. X-ray and endoscopic methods (esophagoscopy, colonoscopy, gastroduodenoscopy, etc.) are used to examine the hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract, ultrasound diagnostics are used for parenchymal. Many chronic diseases of the digestive system, which subsequently require surgical intervention, are caused by neglect or undertreatment of an acute condition. Therefore, the occurrence of any pathological manifestation in the digestive system should serve as a signal to immediately contact a specialist gastroenterologist. In the treatment of diseases of the digestive system, the patient will be required to strictly follow the treatment regimen and diet.

vitamin B6 deficiency

Vitamin B6 deficiency

Vitamin B6 deficiency is a disease that develops with a deficiency of vitamin B6 in food, a violation of its absorption from the intestine or intensive destruction and excretion from the body. At the initial stage, the symptoms are nonspecific: fatigue, general weakness, distraction, lethargy. With persistent vitamin deficiency, signs of seborrheic dermatitis, stomatitis, glossitis,…

Vitamin B2 deficiency

Vitamin B2 Deficiency

Vitamin B2 deficiency is a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin B2 in the diet, its insufficient absorption from the intestine or intensive destruction and excretion from the body. It is manifested by seborrheic dermatitis, rough scaly skin, swelling and soreness of the tongue, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, photophobia, redness and swelling of the lips, their…

vitamin b12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency is a disease caused by an insufficient content of vitamin B12 in the body. It is manifested by anemia, inflammation and burning of the tongue, the formation of redness on the skin, increased fatigue, insomnia, decreased appetite, abdominal pain, stomach upset, weight loss, numbness of fingers and muscle pain. With a prolonged…

vitamin a deficiency

Vitamin A Deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency is a pathological condition caused by insufficient intake or impaired absorption of retinol. It is manifested by hemeralopia, hyperkeratosis, thinning of nails, hair loss, a tendency to pustular skin lesions, frequent respiratory infections. It is diagnosed by determining the concentration of retinol in blood plasma, ophthalmological examination, radiography, endoscopy of the gastrointestinal…



Hypovitaminosis is a deficiency in the body of one or a whole group of vitamins. The manifestations of the disease largely depend on the type of hypovitaminosis (on which vitamin is missing), however, all types of vitamin deficiency are characterized by increased fatigue, drowsiness, irritability, decreased appetite. Diagnosis is reduced to the correct assessment of…

hypervitaminosis a

Hypervitaminosis A

Hypervitaminosis A is a complex of clinical and laboratory signs that occur with a single or prolonged intake of ultra–high doses of vitamin A. Pathology develops when the retinoid treatment regimen is violated, accidental poisoning, eating foods containing a large amount of nutrient. Acute hypervitaminosis is manifested by dyspeptic disorders, visual disturbances, confusion. The chronic…

hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a primary malignant liver lesion (hepatic cell carcinoma) characterized by rapid progression and an unfavorable prognosis. Signs of this pathology are hepatomegaly, symptoms of compression of the portal vein and the common hepatic duct, dyspeptic phenomena and intoxication syndrome. Diagnosis is based on ultrasound, CT and MRI of the liver, histological confirmation…



Hepatosplenomegaly is a secondary pathological syndrome that accompanies the course of many diseases and is characterized by a significant simultaneous increase in the size of the liver and spleen. Clinical manifestations depend on the pathology that led to this condition, common signs are heaviness in the hypochondria and epigastrium, abdominal pain during palpation. Diagnosis is…

hepatorenal syndrome

Hepatorenal Syndrome

Hepatorenal syndrome is a kidney malfunction that develops against the background of severe liver pathology with portal hypertension and is associated with a decrease in effective filtration in the glomerular apparatus. The main etiological factors are cirrhosis, acute viral hepatitis, and tumor damage to the liver. Symptoms are nonspecific: oliguria, weakness, nausea in combination with…

hepatopulmonary syndrome

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome

Hepatopulmonary syndrome is pathological changes in the pulmonary vessels that occur against the background of chronic liver diseases. The main cause is cirrhosis, less often the condition accompanies chronic hepatitis, cholelithiasis, hepatic vascular pathologies. Symptoms: shortness of breath, increasing in the vertical position of the body, perioral cyanosis and acrocyanosis, deformities of the fingers, similar…