The field of study of endocrinology is the medical aspects of the structure and functioning of the endocrine glands (or endocrine glands), the study of biologically highly active substances produced by them – hormones and their effects on the body, as well as diseases arising from a violation of the activity of these glands or hormone production.Endocrinology is most closely connected with almost all areas of clinical medicine, because hormones control the most important processes occurring in the body: growth, maturation, reproduction, metabolism, proper functioning of organs and systems.

Modern trends in endocrinology are neuroendocrinology, which studies the relationship between nervous and endocrine regulation of the body, and gynecological endocrinology, which deals with the correction of hormonal disorders in the female body.

The endocrine system combines anatomically unrelated endocrine glands: the epiphysis, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, sex glands. Most diseases of the endocrine glands cause severe violations of vital functions, not excluding death, if you do not consult an endocrinologist in time.

The most urgent problems of modern endocrinology are the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases (diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, thyroid cysts), diabetes mellitus, diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system (acromegaly, gigantism, hypothalamic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, lactation problems, prolactinoma), diseases of the adrenal glands (adrenal insufficiency, adrenal tumors), disorders of the genital glands (endocrine infertility). Today, thanks to the accumulated endocrinology knowledge and practical experience, it is possible to significantly improve the quality of life of patients with endocrine pathology.

Environmental degradation, stress, unbalanced nutrition, burdened heredity often cause disorders in the work of the endocrine glands and lead to the development of endocrine diseases. Diseases of the endocrine system, as a rule, are of a long, severe nature. Therefore, it is important to prevent their occurrence in time, to identify them as early as possible or to prevent the development of their complications.

An appeal to an endocrinologist is necessary if:

  • the next of kin has any endocrine pathology: diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, etc.
  • you are overweight,
  • you have symptoms: increased heartbeat, sweating or dry skin, fatigue or irritability, thirst and increased urination, discoloration of the skin, etc.
  • the child has a delay in mental, physical, sexual development
  • menstrual function is impaired
  • you are planning a pregnancy or are there problems with its onset
  • you already have an endocrine disease and you need monitoring and treatment.

For the diagnosis of endocrine pathology, a comprehensive examination is used, including the study of the patient’s anamnesis, tests for the content of various hormones, ultrasound of the glands, magnetic resonance imaging. Based on the data obtained, the issue of further conservative or surgical treatment is being resolved.

Treatment of endocrine diseases is aimed at correcting hormonal disorders, achieving stable remission of the pathological process and restoring the normal quality of life of the patient.

In the Medical Directory of Diseases on the website “Medic Journal” you will get acquainted with the characteristic features of endocrine diseases. On the website “Medic Journal” you will get all the necessary information about existing methods of prevention.

Thyroid Lymphoma

Thyroid lymphoma is a non–epithelial malignant tumor of the thyroid gland that develops from lymphoid tissue. With pathology, there is an increase in the neck and cervical lymph nodes, symptoms of compression of surrounding organs develop (dysphagia, hoarseness of voice, shortness of breath). Disease is diagnosed on the basis of ultrasound, CT of the neck,…

Lactic Acidosis

Lactic acidosis is a pathological condition that develops with a persistent increase in the level of lactic acid in the blood to 5 mmol / l or more. It is manifested by symptoms of intoxication – nausea, vomiting, dizziness, anxiety. In the later stages, breathing disorders with pronounced hyperventilation of the lungs, confusion in the…


Corticosteroma is a tumor of the adrenal cortex that autonomously secretes an excessive amount of cortisol and leads to the development of Itsenko-Cushing syndrome. Clinical manifestations are characterized by a symptom complex of hypercorticism: arterial hypertension, kushingoid obesity, muscle weakness, impaired carbohydrate metabolism and sexual function, virilism phenomena (in women) and signs of demasculinization (in…

True Hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism is a congenital disorder of sexual differentiation characterized by the presence of two types of gonads in an individual (ovary and testicle) or gonads of mixed structure (ovotestis). Clinical manifestations can be different and depend on the predominance of the functional activity of the male or female gonad. Patients with this disease may…

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a decrease in the susceptibility of insulin–sensitive tissues to the action of insulin with sufficient concentration in the blood. There are no specific symptoms of insulin resistance. Common concomitant signs are: visceral obesity, arterial hypertension, fatty hepatosis, atherosclerosis, black acanthosis (pigmented wrinkled areas of the skin). Laboratory tests are used for diagnosis:…


Insulinoma is a hormone–active tumor of the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, secreting insulin in excess and leading to the development of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic attacks with insulinoma are accompanied by trembling, cold sweat, hunger and fear, tachycardia, paresthesia, speech, visual and behavioral disorders; in severe cases – convulsions and coma. Diagnosis of insulinoma is…

Substernal Goiter

Substernal goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland, in which the lower pole or a significant part of the organ is localized below the jugular notch of the sternum. The cause of pathology are the same factors that cause other types of goiter: iodine deficiency, hereditary predisposition, poor ecology. The disease is manifested by…

Diffuse Euthyroid Goiter

Diffuse euthyroid goiter is compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland without disruption of its function. Disease, as a rule, has no pronounced clinical manifestations; with a significant increase in the thyroid gland, pressure in the neck area may be felt, and a visible cosmetic defect may occur. Diagnosis involves palpation of the gland,…

Graves’ Disease

Graves’ disease (diffuse toxic goiter) is a disease caused by hypertrophy and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, accompanied by the development of thyrotoxicosis. Clinically manifested by increased excitability, irritability, weight loss, palpitations, sweating, shortness of breath, subfebrile temperature. A characteristic symptom is bug–eyed. It leads to changes in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, the development…

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a decompensated form of diabetes mellitus that occurs with an increase in the level of glucose and ketone bodies in the blood. It is characterized by thirst, increased urination, dry skin, acetone breath, abdominal pain. On the part of the central nervous system, there is the appearance of headaches, lethargy, irritability, drowsiness,…