The field of study of endocrinology is the medical aspects of the structure and functioning of the endocrine glands (or endocrine glands), the study of biologically highly active substances produced by them – hormones and their effects on the body, as well as diseases arising from a violation of the activity of these glands or hormone production.Endocrinology is most closely connected with almost all areas of clinical medicine, because hormones control the most important processes occurring in the body: growth, maturation, reproduction, metabolism, proper functioning of organs and systems.

Modern trends in endocrinology are neuroendocrinology, which studies the relationship between nervous and endocrine regulation of the body, and gynecological endocrinology, which deals with the correction of hormonal disorders in the female body.

The endocrine system combines anatomically unrelated endocrine glands: the epiphysis, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, sex glands. Most diseases of the endocrine glands cause severe violations of vital functions, not excluding death, if you do not consult an endocrinologist in time.

The most urgent problems of modern endocrinology are the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases (diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, thyroid cysts), diabetes mellitus, diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system (acromegaly, gigantism, hypothalamic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, lactation problems, prolactinoma), diseases of the adrenal glands (adrenal insufficiency, adrenal tumors), disorders of the genital glands (endocrine infertility). Today, thanks to the accumulated endocrinology knowledge and practical experience, it is possible to significantly improve the quality of life of patients with endocrine pathology.

Environmental degradation, stress, unbalanced nutrition, burdened heredity often cause disorders in the work of the endocrine glands and lead to the development of endocrine diseases. Diseases of the endocrine system, as a rule, are of a long, severe nature. Therefore, it is important to prevent their occurrence in time, to identify them as early as possible or to prevent the development of their complications.

An appeal to an endocrinologist is necessary if:

  • the next of kin has any endocrine pathology: diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, etc.
  • you are overweight,
  • you have symptoms: increased heartbeat, sweating or dry skin, fatigue or irritability, thirst and increased urination, discoloration of the skin, etc.
  • the child has a delay in mental, physical, sexual development
  • menstrual function is impaired
  • you are planning a pregnancy or are there problems with its onset
  • you already have an endocrine disease and you need monitoring and treatment.

For the diagnosis of endocrine pathology, a comprehensive examination is used, including the study of the patient’s anamnesis, tests for the content of various hormones, ultrasound of the glands, magnetic resonance imaging. Based on the data obtained, the issue of further conservative or surgical treatment is being resolved.

Treatment of endocrine diseases is aimed at correcting hormonal disorders, achieving stable remission of the pathological process and restoring the normal quality of life of the patient.

In the Medical Directory of Diseases on the website “Medic Journal” you will get acquainted with the characteristic features of endocrine diseases. On the website “Medic Journal” you will get all the necessary information about existing methods of prevention.

Diabetic Enteropathy

Diabetic enteropathy is a complication of diabetes mellitus, a variant of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, in which the innervation of the digestive tract is disturbed. Typical manifestations are diarrhea and steatorrhea. The stool becomes profuse, painful, watery, the frequency of bowel movements is from 4-6 to 30 times a day. Diarrhea often worsens at night, combined…

Diabetic Foot

Diabetic foot – specific anatomical and functional changes in foot tissues caused by metabolic disorders in patients with decompensated diabetes mellitus. Signs of diabetic foot are pain in the legs, hyperkeratosis and skin cracks, distal limb deformity, ulcerative defects and necrosis of soft tissues, in severe cases – gangrene of the foot or lower leg.…

Charcot Foot

Charcot foot is a disease that manifests itself by the destruction of bone and joint tissue against the background of diabetic neuropathy. There is swelling, hyperemia and pain in the ankle joint. Foot deformity develops, joint mobility is impaired. Diagnosis is based on examination, clinical picture, radiography and tomography data (MRI, CT of the foot).…

Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy is a specific pathological changes in the renal vessels that occur in diabetes mellitus of both types and lead to glomerulosclerosis, decreased filtration function of the kidneys and the development of chronic renal failure (CRF). Disease is clinically manifested by microalbuminuria and proteinuria, arterial hypertension, nephrotic syndrome, signs of uremia and CRF. The…

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy is a specific lesion of the peripheral nervous system caused by dysmetabolic processes in diabetes mellitus. Disease is manifested by impaired sensitivity (paresthesia, numbness of the extremities), autonomic dysfunction (tachycardia, hypotension, dysphagia, diarrhea, anhidrosis), genitourinary disorders, etc. In diabetic neuropathy, the functioning of the endocrine, nervous, cardiac, digestive, and urinary systems is examined.…

Diabetic Macroangiopathy

Diabetic macroangiopathy is generalized atherosclerotic changes that develop in medium– and large-caliber arteries against the background of a long course of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic macroangiopathy leads to the occurrence of coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension, disorders of cerebral circulation, occlusive lesions of peripheral arteries. The diagnosis of diabetic macroangiopathy includes the study of lipid metabolism,…

Diabetic Gangrene

Diabetic gangrene is the necrosis of a part of the body in diabetes mellitus. Distal parts of the lower extremities usually suffer. The main symptoms are pain, black (black-blue, dark purple) limb color, lack of sensitivity and blood supply in the affected area. With wet necrosis, suppuration, nausea, chills, hyperthermia are observed. The diagnosis is…


Hirsutism is excessive growth of hair on the body and face in women according to the male (androgenic) type. It is characterized by the appearance of hair in the upper lip, chin, chest, back and abdomen. With hirsutism, there is often a violation of the regularity of the menstrual cycle, uterine bleeding, infertility, anemia. A…


Dwarfism is an endocrine disease based on a violation of the synthesis of growth hormone (somatotropin) in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, which leads to a delay in the growth of the skeleton, internal organs and physical underdevelopment. Disease is characterized by abnormal stunting: men’s height is below 130 cm, women’s height is…

Myxedema Coma

Myxedema coma is an urgent, extremely severe complication of decompensated hypothyroidism. At the initial stages, it is manifested by increased fatigue, lethargy, apathy. Gradually, there is a cooling of the extremities, paleness of the skin, swelling of the lower extremities. In a serious condition, breathing slows down, loss of consciousness occurs, urination is disturbed, blood pressure…