The field of study of endocrinology is the medical aspects of the structure and functioning of the endocrine glands (or endocrine glands), the study of biologically highly active substances produced by them – hormones and their effects on the body, as well as diseases arising from a violation of the activity of these glands or hormone production.Endocrinology is most closely connected with almost all areas of clinical medicine, because hormones control the most important processes occurring in the body: growth, maturation, reproduction, metabolism, proper functioning of organs and systems.

Modern trends in endocrinology are neuroendocrinology, which studies the relationship between nervous and endocrine regulation of the body, and gynecological endocrinology, which deals with the correction of hormonal disorders in the female body.

The endocrine system combines anatomically unrelated endocrine glands: the epiphysis, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, sex glands. Most diseases of the endocrine glands cause severe violations of vital functions, not excluding death, if you do not consult an endocrinologist in time.

The most urgent problems of modern endocrinology are the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases (diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, thyroid cysts), diabetes mellitus, diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system (acromegaly, gigantism, hypothalamic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, lactation problems, prolactinoma), diseases of the adrenal glands (adrenal insufficiency, adrenal tumors), disorders of the genital glands (endocrine infertility). Today, thanks to the accumulated endocrinology knowledge and practical experience, it is possible to significantly improve the quality of life of patients with endocrine pathology.

Environmental degradation, stress, unbalanced nutrition, burdened heredity often cause disorders in the work of the endocrine glands and lead to the development of endocrine diseases. Diseases of the endocrine system, as a rule, are of a long, severe nature. Therefore, it is important to prevent their occurrence in time, to identify them as early as possible or to prevent the development of their complications.

An appeal to an endocrinologist is necessary if:

  • the next of kin has any endocrine pathology: diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, etc.
  • you are overweight,
  • you have symptoms: increased heartbeat, sweating or dry skin, fatigue or irritability, thirst and increased urination, discoloration of the skin, etc.
  • the child has a delay in mental, physical, sexual development
  • menstrual function is impaired
  • you are planning a pregnancy or are there problems with its onset
  • you already have an endocrine disease and you need monitoring and treatment.

For the diagnosis of endocrine pathology, a comprehensive examination is used, including the study of the patient’s anamnesis, tests for the content of various hormones, ultrasound of the glands, magnetic resonance imaging. Based on the data obtained, the issue of further conservative or surgical treatment is being resolved.

Treatment of endocrine diseases is aimed at correcting hormonal disorders, achieving stable remission of the pathological process and restoring the normal quality of life of the patient.

In the Medical Directory of Diseases on the website “Medic Journal” you will get acquainted with the characteristic features of endocrine diseases. On the website “Medic Journal” you will get all the necessary information about existing methods of prevention.


Hyperparathyroidism is an endocrinopathy based on excessive production of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Hyperparathyroidism leads to an increase in the level of calcium in the blood and pathological changes occurring primarily in bone tissue and kidneys. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism among women is 2-3 times more common than in men. Hyperparathyroidism is more…

Hyperosmolar Coma

Hyperosmolar coma is an acute complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus characterized by impaired glucose metabolism and an increase in its blood level, a sharp increase in plasma osmolarity, pronounced intracellular dehydration, and the absence of ketoacidosis. The main symptoms are polyuria, dehydration, muscle hypertonia, convulsions, increasing drowsiness, hallucinations, incoherent speech. For diagnosis, anamnesis is…


Hypercalcemia is a severe emergency condition characterized by a sharp increase in the level of calcium in the blood. It is manifested by symptoms of intoxication: increasing weakness, intense thirst, decreased appetite, nausea, indomitable vomiting, spastic abdominal pain, apathy, absent-mindedness, forgetfulness, arthralgias and myalgias. As a result of calcification, the work of internal organs is…


Hyperinsulinism is a clinical syndrome characterized by an increase in insulin levels and a decrease in blood sugar. Hypoglycemia leads to weakness, dizziness, increased appetite, tremor, psychomotor agitation. In the absence of timely treatment, hypoglycemic coma develops. Diagnosis of the causes of the condition is based on the features of the clinical picture, functional test…

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is one of the variants of diabetic coma, in which there is a sharp increase in glucose levels without ketoacidosis. The condition occurs with prolonged dehydration, excessive intake of carbohydrates, relative insufficiency of insulin. Pathology is manifested by loss of consciousness, convulsions, decreased skin turgor and other signs of dehydration. To diagnose an…


Hyperaldosteronism is a pathological condition caused by increased production of aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone of the adrenal cortex. With primary hyperaldosteronism, arterial hypertension, headaches, cardialgia and cardiac arrhythmia, visual impairment, muscle weakness, paresthesia, convulsions are observed. With secondary form, peripheral edema, chronic renal failure, changes in the fundus develop. Diagnostics of various types includes…


Gynecomastia is a pathology of the mammary glands in men, manifested by a one– or two-sided increase in their size due to hypertrophy of glandular or adipose tissue. It is manifested by compaction and enlargement of the breast, a feeling of heaviness, painful sensations during palpation. It can regress on its own. If conservative therapy…

Hydropexic Syndrome

Hydropexic syndrome is a pathological condition characterized by a violation of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and, as a result, increased vasopressin production. The disease is manifested by the appearance of edema, decreased diuresis, and an increase in body weight. Fluid retention is accompanied by headache, dryness and pallor of the skin. Diagnostics includes physical…


Gigantism is a pathological tallness caused by excessive production of growth hormone (somatotropic hormone) by the anterior pituitary gland and manifested already in childhood. There is an increase in height over 2 m, a disproportionality of the physique with a predominant elongation of the limbs, while the head seems very small. Patients have a disorder…


Gastrinoma is a functionally active tumor, more often localized in the pancreas or duodenum, secreting gastrin in excess quantities. Gastrinoma is clinically manifested by Zollinger-Addison syndrome: recurrent peptic ulcers, diarrhea and steatorrhea. In order to diagnose gastrinoma, the concentration of gastrin in the blood serum, provocative tests, transhepatic selective angiography with determination of the content…