The field of study of endocrinology is the medical aspects of the structure and functioning of the endocrine glands (or endocrine glands), the study of biologically highly active substances produced by them – hormones and their effects on the body, as well as diseases arising from a violation of the activity of these glands or hormone production.Endocrinology is most closely connected with almost all areas of clinical medicine, because hormones control the most important processes occurring in the body: growth, maturation, reproduction, metabolism, proper functioning of organs and systems.

Modern trends in endocrinology are neuroendocrinology, which studies the relationship between nervous and endocrine regulation of the body, and gynecological endocrinology, which deals with the correction of hormonal disorders in the female body.

The endocrine system combines anatomically unrelated endocrine glands: the epiphysis, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, sex glands. Most diseases of the endocrine glands cause severe violations of vital functions, not excluding death, if you do not consult an endocrinologist in time.

The most urgent problems of modern endocrinology are the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases (diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, thyroid cysts), diabetes mellitus, diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system (acromegaly, gigantism, hypothalamic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, lactation problems, prolactinoma), diseases of the adrenal glands (adrenal insufficiency, adrenal tumors), disorders of the genital glands (endocrine infertility). Today, thanks to the accumulated endocrinology knowledge and practical experience, it is possible to significantly improve the quality of life of patients with endocrine pathology.

Environmental degradation, stress, unbalanced nutrition, burdened heredity often cause disorders in the work of the endocrine glands and lead to the development of endocrine diseases. Diseases of the endocrine system, as a rule, are of a long, severe nature. Therefore, it is important to prevent their occurrence in time, to identify them as early as possible or to prevent the development of their complications.

An appeal to an endocrinologist is necessary if:

  • the next of kin has any endocrine pathology: diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, etc.
  • you are overweight,
  • you have symptoms: increased heartbeat, sweating or dry skin, fatigue or irritability, thirst and increased urination, discoloration of the skin, etc.
  • the child has a delay in mental, physical, sexual development
  • menstrual function is impaired
  • you are planning a pregnancy or are there problems with its onset
  • you already have an endocrine disease and you need monitoring and treatment.

For the diagnosis of endocrine pathology, a comprehensive examination is used, including the study of the patient’s anamnesis, tests for the content of various hormones, ultrasound of the glands, magnetic resonance imaging. Based on the data obtained, the issue of further conservative or surgical treatment is being resolved.

Treatment of endocrine diseases is aimed at correcting hormonal disorders, achieving stable remission of the pathological process and restoring the normal quality of life of the patient.

In the Medical Directory of Diseases on the website “Medic Journal” you will get acquainted with the characteristic features of endocrine diseases. On the website “Medic Journal” you will get all the necessary information about existing methods of prevention.

Plummer’s Disease

Plummer’s disease is an endocrine pathology caused by the development of thyroid adenoma, which actively produces thyroid hormones. It is manifested by symptoms of hyperthyroidism: weight loss, shortness of breath, weakness, drowsiness, tachycardia, arrhythmia. The diagnostic complex includes consultation and examination of an endocrinologist, ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy, blood test for thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating…

Cushing’s Disease

Cushing’s disease is a neuroendocrine disorder that develops as a result of damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary system, hypersecretion of ACTH and secondary hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex. The symptom complex characterizing Cushing’s disease includes obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, decreased function of the genital glands, dry skin, striae on the body, hirsutism, etc. For diagnostic…

Addison’s Disease

Addison’s disease is a primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI), which is caused by the destruction of the glandular tissue of the adrenal glands and a decrease in hormone synthesis. The disease occurs against the background of autoimmune pathologies, damage to the endocrine glands by the tuberculous process. Classic symptoms include hyperpigmentation of the skin, general and…

Silent Thyroiditis

Silent thyroiditis is a thyroid disease characterized by lymphoid infiltration and an immunodestructive process in glandular tissues. It is manifested by symptoms of transient thyrotoxicosis in the absence of pain syndrome. Patients complain of irritability, fatigue, general weakness, weight loss, palpitations. Diagnostics includes ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy, blood tests for T4, TSH, anti-TPO. Medical treatment…

Autoimmune Thyroiditis

Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is a chronic inflammation of thyroid tissue that has an autoimmune genesis and is associated with damage and destruction of follicles and follicular cells of the gland. In typical cases, autoimmune thyroiditis has an asymptomatic course, only occasionally accompanied by an increase in the thyroid gland. Diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis is carried…

Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APGS) is an autoimmune endocrinopathy that occurs with simultaneous primary multiple lesions of the endocrine glands and other organs. With APGS type 1, there is adrenal insufficiency, candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes, hypoparathyroidism; APGS type 2 proceeds with the development of adrenal insufficiency, hyper- or hypothyroidism, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, primary hypogonadism,…

Thyroid Dysgenesis

Thyroid dysgenesis are congenital pathologies, including violations of the position, quantity, structure of the organ, as well as residual embryonic formations. Depending on the type of thyroid defect, it may be accompanied by euthyroidism, signs of hypo- or hyperthyroidism, choking, coughing, shortness of breath. The diagnosis of anomalies is carried out using ultrasound, fine needle…

Amiodarone-Induced Thyropathies

Amiodarone-induced thyropathies (AmIT, AIT) are a group of thyroid pathologies caused by prolonged use of the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone. The course is often asymptomatic, sometimes mild and moderate signs of hyperthyroidism (irritability, feeling of heat, tachycardia, tremor) or hypothyroidism (chilliness, weakness, drowsiness, fatigue) develop. Diagnostics includes blood tests for thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone, scintigraphy…

Primary Aldosteronism

Primary aldosteronism (aldosteroma, Conn’s syndrome) is a hormonally active tumor of the glomerular epithelium of the adrenal cortex, leading to the development of clinical Conn syndrome – primary aldosteronism. Among the symptoms are cardiovascular (arterial hypertension, headaches, cardialgia, visual impairment), neuromuscular (myopathy, myalgia, paresthesia, convulsions), renal (polyuria, polydipsia, isostenuria). The diagnosis is established by the characteristic…


Acromegaly is a pathological enlargement of individual parts of the body associated with increased production of somatotropic hormone (growth hormone) by the anterior pituitary lobe as a result of its tumor lesion. It occurs in adults and is manifested by enlargement of facial features (nose, ears, lips, lower jaw), enlargement of feet and hands, constant…