Ophthalmology is a field of clinical medicine that studies eye diseases: pathological conditions of the eyeball and the accessory apparatus of the eye – lacrimal glands, eyelids, conjunctiva, as well as bone and soft tissue structures surrounding the eyes.

The most important task of ophthalmology is the development and improvement of methods for the prevention, detection and treatment of eye diseases aimed at preserving and correcting visual function. Specialists in the field of eye diseases are ophthalmologists. More narrow ophthalmological specialties include surgical and laser ophthalmology, ophthalmooncology, ophthalmic traumatology, pediatric ophthalmology, etc.

The visual analyzer is a unique sense organ in its meaning. With the help of vision, a person receives up to 80% of information about the world around him. Unfortunately, the percentage of people suffering from eye diseases worldwide is steadily increasing. Therefore, it is so important to have an idea of the first signs of eye diseases, measures for the prevention of ophthalmopathology and ways of its treatment, as well as to understand the importance of timely seeking qualified ophthalmological care.

A disease of this category can occur at any age: they can be genetically determined, congenital, acquired. In children, a significant decrease and loss of vision leads to a delay in mental development, negatively affects the speech function, the motor sphere in the future, forms distorted, fuzzy, fragmentary ideas about the surrounding reality, makes it difficult to establish social ties and behavioral skills in society.

In this regard, the system of early care in ophthalmology provides screening of newborns, children of early, preschool and school age in order to identify subclinical signs (retinopathy of prematurity, strabismus, amblyopia, glaucoma, cataracts, myopia, hyperopia, etc.) and provide early correctional medical and pedagogical assistance.

Acquired diseases can be associated with common and infectious human diseases: beriberi A, measles rubella, diabetes mellitus, injuries, chronic foci of bacterial infection, hypertension, atherosclerosis, renal pathology, neurological diseases, pregnancy pathology, etc. Most often in ophthalmology eye diseases are diagnosed, characterized by abnormalities in the optical apparatus of the eye – hyperopia, presbyopia, myopia, astigmatism, etc.

A large group of eye diseases consists of inflammatory pathology of various structures of the organ of vision – conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, iridocyclitis, retinitis, uveitis, endophthalmitis, barley, etc. Traumatic damage to the structures of the eye is extremely dangerous in its consequences – burns, mechanical damage to the eyes, ingestion of foreign bodies.

Diseases can develop acutely or gradually, suddenly manifesting itself with a sharp decrease in vision. This kind of pathology primarily includes diseases of the neurovascular apparatus of the eye: atrophy of the optic nerve, ischemic neuropathy of the optic nerve, occlusion of the arteries and veins of the retina, chorioretinal dystrophy, etc. Factors that negatively affect the function of vision and increase the risk of eye diseases are considered age, chronic heart and vascular diseases, metabolic diseases, adverse environmental conditions, stress, smoking, deficiency of vitamins and rare trace elements (zinc, selenium), etc.

The last decades have been marked by the rapid development of ophthalmology. At the disposal of specialists today are modern equipment, innovative technologies, minimally invasive techniques. To detect eye diseases, a large range of diagnostic techniques is used – test, biometric, ultrasound, electrophysiological, X-ray, optical, laboratory, etc. Laser installations used for vision correction, treatment of corneal and retinal pathology, glaucoma and cataracts have found wide application in the surgery of eye diseases.

Traditional therapeutic manipulations, hardware methods of vision correction, microsurgical techniques for the treatment have not lost their relevance in ophthalmology. To date, most surgical interventions in ophthalmology can be performed on an outpatient basis.



Gordeolum is a limited purulent process on the eyelids that develops when the hair follicle of the eyelash or sebaceous gland is infected. The gordeolum on the eye is manifested by painful local swelling and hyperemia of the edge of the eyelid, followed by the formation of an abscess. Diagnosis of barley is based on…

corneal ulcers

Corneal Ulcer

Corneal ulcer is a destructive process in the cornea of the eye, accompanied by the formation of a crater–shaped ulcerative defect. Corneal ulcer is accompanied by a pronounced corneal syndrome, pain and a significant decrease in vision of the affected eye, clouding of the cornea. Diagnosis of corneal ulcers is based on data from an…

orbital echinococcosis

Orbital Echinococcosis

Orbital echinococcosis is a lesion of the orbit and paraorbital tissue caused by infection with larval stages of echinococcus. The main symptoms of the disease are discomfort and pain in the orbit, limited eye mobility, exophthalmos. The examination complex includes ophthalmoscopy, computed tomography of the orbits, ultrasound, Casoni test, IOP measurement, biomicroscopy of the eye,…



Episcleritis is an inflammation of the episcleral plate of the eye. Clinically manifested by unilateral redness, moderate discomfort in the eye area, local soreness, lacrimation. In the process of diagnosis, visual examination, visometry, tonometry, refractometry, computer perimetry, biomicroscopy using a slit lamp are used. Laboratory diagnostics are used to identify possible underlying pathology. Treatment of…

epiretinal membrane

Epiretinal Membrane

Epiretinal membrane is a slowly progressive disease that develops as a result of the formation of a thin film in the vitreous cavity. Clinical symptoms are represented by a decrease in visual acuity, the appearance of “fog” and distortion of the image in front of the eyes, diplopia. Diagnostics includes ophthalmoscopy, Doppler ultrasound in In-mode,…



Epicanthus is a vertical fold located between the upper and lower eyelids, partially covering the inner corner of the eye slit. In addition to the cosmetic defect, there is a narrowing of the field of vision, a feeling of “sand” or a foreign body under the eyelids, less often itching and burning. Diagnostics includes an…

acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis

Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is a highly contagious acute ophthalmic infection caused by picornaviruses, affecting the conjunctiva of the eyes and accompanied by massive subconjunctival hemorrhages. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis occurs with severe hyperemia, swelling and chemosis of the mucous membrane, pain in the eyes, photophobia, serous-purulent discharge, subconjunctival hemorrhages that occur against the background of common…



Enophthalmos is a pathological condition of the eyeball, in which it is excessively trapped in the orbital cavity. Clinically manifested by diplopia, scotomas, impaired eye mobility, decreased visual acuity. Diagnosis of enophthalmos is based on the results of external examination, palpation, exophthalmometry, radiography, Doppler ultrasound in In-mode, CT, visometry. Treatment tactics are determined by etiology.…



Endophthalmitis is an abscessing inflammation of the internal structures of the eye, leading to the accumulation of purulent exudate in the vitreous body. With endophthalmitis, there are pains in the eyeball, swelling and redness of the eyelids and conjunctiva, a significant decrease in visual acuity, hypopion. In the diagnosis of endophthalmitis, visometry, field of vision…

fuchs dystrophy

Fuchs Dystrophy

Fuchs dystrophy is a disease of the organ of vision, the cause of which is the death of cells of the posterior epithelium of the cornea. Clinically manifested by a decrease in visual acuity in the morning, photophobia, hyperemia, increased lacrimation, pain syndrome. Diagnosis of endothelial corneal dystrophy includes external examination, confocal microscopy, biomicroscopy, pachymetry,…