Motor disorders include various kinds of disorders when performing a motor-motor act: walking, habitual everyday actions. They may be the result of changes in muscle strength and tone, coordination, diseases of the musculoskeletal system. To accurately diagnose the cause of motor disorders, electrophysiological (electromyography), radiation (Rg and ultrasound of the spine, joints), invasive (puncture, arthroscopy) studies are required. Treatment consists of drug therapy, kinesiocorrection, physiotherapy, massage. If necessary, corrective operations are performed.

Causes of motor disorders

The disorder of motor function is spoken of in the case when a person cannot maintain the position of his own body in space and perform movements in full. Such violations may be a consequence of defeat:

  1. Nervous system: cerebral palsy, polio, myasthenia gravis, head and spinal cord injuries. The main types in the pathology of NS: paresis, paralysis, dystonia, spasticity or hypotension of muscles, hyperkinesis, ataxia.
  2. Musculoskeletal system: vertebrogenic pathology (osteochondrosis, intervertebral hernias), limb defects (clubfoot, congenital hip dislocation), arthropathies (polyarthritis, osteoarthritis, patellar balloting), bone and joint injuries. The following types are characteristic: lameness, limitation of the amplitude of movements, complete immobility, pathological mobility.


Motor disorders can have various manifestations and degrees of severity: from a slight dysfunction to the complete impossibility of arbitrary performance of active actions. There are 3 degrees of motor function disorders:

  • Easy. The patient is capable of self-care and movement without additional assistance. Motor activity is limited, there are difficulties in performing manipulative actions.
  • Average. The patient is not mobile enough, moves only with the use of auxiliary orthopedic devices (canes, walkers, crutches). Needs outside help with self-service.
  • Heavy. The patient cannot move, is not able to perform object manipulations and serve himself.


Lameness develops with injuries, degenerative and inflammatory diseases of bones, joints, soft tissues, vascular diseases, neurological, dermatological pathologies. It may occur due to pain, limb deformity, paresis, blood supply disorders. Lameness can be permanent, periodic or intermittent. The diagnosis is made on the basis of anamnesis, examination data, radiography, CT, and other studies. Before determining…


Oligokinesia is a typical manifestation of various forms of Parkinsonism: primary or symptomatic, parkinsonism-plus. It occurs in temporal lobe epilepsy, some encephalopathies and mental disorders. The cause is established on the basis of complaints, anamnesis data, results of neurological examination and additional diagnostic procedures. Treatment includes dopaminomimetics, symptomatic agents. According to the indications, surgical interventions…

Limitation of the Amplitude of Movements

Limitation of the amplitude of movements is observed in lesions of the musculoskeletal system, including injuries, inflammatory, degenerative, infectious diseases. It occurs in nervous diseases, some other pathologies. It can be temporary or permanent. Partial stable restriction of movements is called contracture, almost complete – rigidity, complete – ankylosis. To determine the diagnosis, a survey,…


Hypomimia is observed in a number of neurological and mental diseases: Parkinson’s disease, myopathy, facial nerve paresis, catatonia, depressive, generalized anxiety, hysterical and bipolar affective disorders. It is detected in hypothyroidism and scleroderma. The cause of the development of a masked face is established on the basis of a survey, anamnestic data, the results of…


Bradykinesia is a slowing down of movements. As a rule, it occurs with a simultaneous increase in muscle tone, provoked by the defeat of the extrapyramidal system in Parkinson’s disease, secondary Parkinsonism of various etiologies, some degenerative diseases. In mental disorders, hypothyroidism is not associated with pathology of intracerebral structures, occurs with a decrease in…

Patellar Balloting

Patellar balloting is a condition in which the patella sinks into the joint during pressure until it comes into contact with the underlying bones, and when the pressure stops, it rises back. Indicates the presence of fluid in the joint. It is caused by the accumulation of blood – hemarthrosis or inflammatory fluid – synovitis.…