Pain is an unpleasant, painful or painful physical sensation that occurs as a result of the action of certain stimuli and is a signal of possible or existing damage to an organ or tissue. To determine the causes of pain, anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory tests and instrumental studies are used, including radiography, computer and magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and endoscopy.

Depending on the etiological factor, pain can be functional (arising in the absence of structural pathological changes) and organic (developing against the background of inflammation, traumatic injury, degenerative process, neoplasm, etc.). Taking into account the localization , pain is distinguished in parts of the body:

  • In the head: in the face and scalp, eyes, nose, ears, mouth, tongue, teeth.
  • In the neck: throat, cervical spine, anterior and lateral parts of the neck.
  • In the chest: ribs, mammary gland, left, right and behind the sternum.
  • In the back: spine, interscapular and subcapular areas, sacrum, coccyx, anus and buttocks.
  • In the abdomen: epigastric, umbilical region, lower abdomen, spilled and shingling.
  • In the side: left and right sides and hypochondria.
  • In the genital area: groin, perineum and pubis, scrotum and penis in men, labia in women.
  • In the joints: shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle.
  • In the hand: in the area of the collarbone, armpit, shoulder, forearm and hand.
  • In the leg: pelvic bones, thigh, shin, heel, foot.

According to the connection of pain sensations with certain internal organs and systems, pain in the heart, stomach, intestines, gallbladder, kidneys, bladder, urethra, testicles, appendages, etc. is distinguished. Symptomatic remedies eliminate pain, but do not affect the cause of its occurrence, therefore, if acute, persistent or recurrent pain occurs in a certain area of the body, an examination by a specialist of the appropriate profile is necessary.

Pain in the Temples

Pain in the temples occurs with migraine, arterial hypertension, increased intracranial pressure, injuries, intoxication syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, temporal arteritis, pheochromocytoma, cluster headache and tension headache. Pain can be prolonged, paroxysmal, acute, dull, pulsating, pressing, shooting, aching, burning. The reason is established according to the survey, examination, laboratory and instrumental techniques. Treatment – analgesics, anticonvulsants, glucocorticoids,…

Pain in the Upper Jaw

Pain in the upper jaw is provoked by injuries, purulent processes, ganglioneuritis, some dental and otolaryngological diseases, tumors, pathologies of the masticatory muscles, temporal arteritis. It can be weak, intense, constant, short-term, pressing, aching, jerking, shooting, bursting. The cause of the symptom is established on the basis of complaints, examination data, visualization methods, laboratory tests.…

Upper Abdominal Pain

Upper abdominal pain (epigastrium) develops in many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: intestinal infections, gastritis and peptic ulcer, pathologies of the pancreatobiliary zone. There are extra-abdominal causes, which include lower lobe pneumonia, intercostal neuralgia, lesions of the abdominal aorta and its branches. For diagnostic purposes, a complex of instrumental studies (ultrasound, radiography and CT, endoscopy)…

Flank Pain

Flank pain is a non-specific sign of many diseases of the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, and pelvis. To determine the cause of flank pain, the localization and nature of the pain syndrome, as well as the conditions of its occurrence, combination with other symptoms are important. The diagnosis is made taking into account clinical and…

Neck Pain

Neck pain (cervicalgia) is pain of various nature and intensity that occurs in the cervical region. The symptom is accompanied by dizziness, a feeling of numbness in the back of the head or arm, local redness and swelling of the skin. The neck can hurt with infectious and inflammatory diseases of this area, injuries and…


Headache is an unpleasant or painful sensation of varying intensity, covering the entire head or part of it. It can be prolonged, paroxysmal, dull, acute, pulsating, bursting. It is observed in migraines, provoked by vascular disorders, injuries, increased intracranial pressure, infections, intoxication and other causes. The etiology of cephalgia is established on the basis of…

Hip Pain

Hip pain is an unpleasant or painful sensation caused by a pathological process in the bones, soft tissues, nerves and vessels of the thigh. It can be permanent, periodic, short-term, weak, intense, dull, acute. It is often combined with edema, impaired limb function. It is caused by injuries, inflammatory, degenerative, tumor diseases, and other factors.…