Phlebology is a specialized section of cardiovascular surgery that studies the anatomy, physiology of blood circulation, as well as diseases of venous vessels, issues of their prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Treatment of venous diseases is carried out in departments of vascular pathology or phlebological centers by phlebologists (Greek – phlebo – vein and logos – science, knowledge).

Venous diseases today are one of the most common diseases of the vascular system, these are diseases of young people of working age, mainly from 25 to 45 years old. Untimely treatment of venous pathology is fraught with dire consequences, up to disability and death.

The venous system of the body consists of an extensive network of veins – vessels through which blood moves from organs and tissues to the heart and lungs. When moving from the lower extremities to the heart, the blood flow overcomes gravity. The function of a pump that pushes blood up through the veins is performed by muscles that contract when walking, and valves on the inner lining of the veins prevent the return flow of blood. Defects of venous valves play an essential role in the development of venous diseases: varicose veins and its consequences – chronic venous insufficiency, trophic ulcers, thrombophlebitis.

Symptoms of venous diseases requiring immediate treatment by a phlebologist include fatigue, heaviness, cramps and pain in the legs, swelling, vascular dilation on the legs, the appearance of areas of discoloration and compaction of the skin and subcutaneous tissues.

To assess the degree of venous circulation disorder and to choose further treatment tactics, diagnostics is carried out using ultrasound duplex scanning and ultrasound Dopplerography – modern high-precision methods for studying the condition of blood vessels. In the treatment of venous pathology, conservative methods (drug and compression therapy), non-surgical endovasal methods (laser coagulation, sclerosing therapy of veins) and surgical methods of treatment are used.

In modern phlebology, low-traumatic methods of treating venous diseases based on the use of endoscopic, laser, radiofrequency technologies have become widespread, allowing to minimize complications and the period of rehabilitation after the intervention. Timely treatment allows you to achieve a good cosmetic result, which is especially important for women suffering from diseases of the veins of the lower extremities.

To prevent the development of diseases of the veins of the lower extremities, phlebologists advise to follow simple, but very effective rules.

  • Exclude prolonged standing on your feet, sitting in the “foot on foot”
  • Avoid squeezing the vessels of the legs with tight clothes and elastic bands, wearing high heels
  • To improve venous outflow from the lower extremities during rest, it is necessary to give the legs an elevated position relative to the trunk
  • To strengthen the leg muscles, self-massage should be carried out, exercise therapy should be done, and a contrast shower should be taken
  • Avoid hot baths, frequent visits to baths, saunas, excessive tanning
  • To reduce the viscosity of blood and the tendency to form blood clots, increase the amount of fluid intake to 2 liters per day
  • With the initial manifestations of varicose veins, as well as for the purpose of its prevention during pregnancy, it is recommended to use medical compression knitwear

And, of course, you should visit a phlebologist at least once a year, even if nothing bothers you. Following these tips, you will always be able to walk through life with an easy and confident gait.

On the website “Medic Journal” you will be able to get acquainted with the proposals of the capital’s specialized institutions that are ready to solve your problems using the latest medical techniques, and in the Medical Directory of Diseases you will get acquainted with the description of diseases whose prevention or treatment are relevant for you.



Varicocele is a varicose change in the veins of the spermatic cord, accompanied by a violation of venous outflow from the testicle. It is manifested by pulling and bursting pains, a feeling of discomfort and heaviness in the scrotum, visible expansion of veins. There may be inflammation or rupture of varicose vessels with hemorrhage in…

varicose eczema

Varicose Eczema

Varicose eczema is a local inflammatory lesion of the skin of the lower extremities that occurs in people with chronic venous insufficiency. Dermatitis with varicose veins is represented by itchy eczematous foci on the shins in the form of wet plaques, vesicles, crusts. Inflammatory changes are combined with varicose veins, hyperpigmentation, lipodermatosclerosis and trophic ulcers.…

varicose veins

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are a disease accompanied by thinning of the venous wall, an increase in the lumen of the veins and the formation of aneurysm-like nodular extensions. Usually, when talking about varicose veins, they mean an independent disease – varicose veins of the lower extremities. Varicose veins are manifested by a feeling of heaviness in…

varicose veins during pregnancy

Varicose veins during pregnancy

Varicose veins during pregnancy is an ectasia of venous vessels that occurred during the gestational period and is pathogenetically associated with it. It is manifested by heaviness, paresthesia, pain in the lower extremities and external genitals, swelling, convulsive twitching of muscles, trophic skin lesions. It is diagnosed by examination, ultrasound angioscanning methods. During pregnancy, treatment…

arteriovenous fistula

Arteriovenous Fistula

Arteriovenous fistula is a pathological direct communication between an artery and a vein (congenital or acquired) that creates blood flow bypassing the capillary network. It is localized on any part of the body or in internal organs (brain and spinal cord, kidneys, lungs, liver). Subcutaneous shunts look like expanded pulsating formations of purple color, disrupting…

popliteal vein aneurysm

Popliteal Vein Aneurysm

Popliteal vein aneurysm is a local expansion of a venous vessel located under the knee joint. As a rule, it occurs against the background of varicose veins of the lower extremity. It is manifested by a feeling of discomfort, swelling of the leg. Possible neurological disorders due to compression of the fibular nerve. It can…



Adenophlegmon is a focus of acute suppuration in subcutaneous fat with blurred contours, developing against the background of abscessing lymphadenitis. Most often, adenophlegmon occurs in the parotid and submandibular areas in children. It is clinically manifested by a manifest tumor fluctuating under pressure, with hyperemic skin in the central part, quite dense, painful on palpation.…