Phlebology is a specialized section of cardiovascular surgery that studies the anatomy, physiology of blood circulation, as well as diseases of venous vessels, issues of their prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Treatment of venous diseases is carried out in departments of vascular pathology or phlebological centers by phlebologists (Greek – phlebo – vein and logos – science, knowledge).

Venous diseases today are one of the most common diseases of the vascular system, these are diseases of young people of working age, mainly from 25 to 45 years old. Untimely treatment of venous pathology is fraught with dire consequences, up to disability and death.

The venous system of the body consists of an extensive network of veins – vessels through which blood moves from organs and tissues to the heart and lungs. When moving from the lower extremities to the heart, the blood flow overcomes gravity. The function of a pump that pushes blood up through the veins is performed by muscles that contract when walking, and valves on the inner lining of the veins prevent the return flow of blood. Defects of venous valves play an essential role in the development of venous diseases: varicose veins and its consequences – chronic venous insufficiency, trophic ulcers, thrombophlebitis.

Symptoms of venous diseases requiring immediate treatment by a phlebologist include fatigue, heaviness, cramps and pain in the legs, swelling, vascular dilation on the legs, the appearance of areas of discoloration and compaction of the skin and subcutaneous tissues.

To assess the degree of venous circulation disorder and to choose further treatment tactics, diagnostics is carried out using ultrasound duplex scanning and ultrasound Dopplerography – modern high-precision methods for studying the condition of blood vessels. In the treatment of venous pathology, conservative methods (drug and compression therapy), non-surgical endovasal methods (laser coagulation, sclerosing therapy of veins) and surgical methods of treatment are used.

In modern phlebology, low-traumatic methods of treating venous diseases based on the use of endoscopic, laser, radiofrequency technologies have become widespread, allowing to minimize complications and the period of rehabilitation after the intervention. Timely treatment allows you to achieve a good cosmetic result, which is especially important for women suffering from diseases of the veins of the lower extremities.

To prevent the development of diseases of the veins of the lower extremities, phlebologists advise to follow simple, but very effective rules.

  • Exclude prolonged standing on your feet, sitting in the “foot on foot”
  • Avoid squeezing the vessels of the legs with tight clothes and elastic bands, wearing high heels
  • To improve venous outflow from the lower extremities during rest, it is necessary to give the legs an elevated position relative to the trunk
  • To strengthen the leg muscles, self-massage should be carried out, exercise therapy should be done, and a contrast shower should be taken
  • Avoid hot baths, frequent visits to baths, saunas, excessive tanning
  • To reduce the viscosity of blood and the tendency to form blood clots, increase the amount of fluid intake to 2 liters per day
  • With the initial manifestations of varicose veins, as well as for the purpose of its prevention during pregnancy, it is recommended to use medical compression knitwear

And, of course, you should visit a phlebologist at least once a year, even if nothing bothers you. Following these tips, you will always be able to walk through life with an easy and confident gait.

On the website “Medic Journal” you will be able to get acquainted with the proposals of the capital’s specialized institutions that are ready to solve your problems using the latest medical techniques, and in the Medical Directory of Diseases you will get acquainted with the description of diseases whose prevention or treatment are relevant for you.

Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Chronic venous insufficiency is a pathology caused by a violation of venous outflow in the lower extremities. With CVI, there are swelling and pigmented disorders of the shins, fatigue and heaviness in the legs, cramps at night. Progressive venous insufficiency causes the appearance of trophic ulcers. The diagnosis is made on the basis of ultrasound…


Phlebitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the venous wall. It can develop as a result of exposure to various factors, however, it is most often a complication of varicose veins of the lower extremities. The disease rarely occurs in isolation. Changes in the venous wall as a result of inflammation, as a rule,…

Trophic Ulcer

Trophic ulcer is an open wound on the skin or mucosa that has arisen after the rejection of dead tissues and does not heal for 6 or more weeks. The cause of trophic ulcers is a local violation of blood circulation or tissue innervation. Pathology develop against the background of various diseases, are characterized by…


Thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory process in the internal venous wall with the formation of a blood clot. It is characterized by compaction and redness along the course of the dilated vein, sharp soreness, swelling, and an increase in local and general body temperature. With the spread of thrombophlebitis to deep veins, such a formidable complication…


Thrombophilia is a predisposition to the development of recurrent vascular thrombosis (mainly venous) of various localization. The disease is caused by genetic or acquired pathology of blood cells or defects in the blood coagulation system. Clinically, disease is manifested by multiple thrombosis of very different localization. Repeated thrombosis in the patient’s history should lead the…

Splenic Vein Thrombosis

Splenic vein thrombosis is a blockage of the vessel lumen by a thrombus, which is accompanied by an increase in the spleen and an expansion of the network of collaterals. Acute thrombosis is manifested by abdominal pain, bloody vomiting and intestinal bleeding. The chronic variant is characterized by discomfort and heaviness in the left hypochondrium,…

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis is a condition in which blood clots (blood clots) form in the veins, preventing normal blood flow. The clinical symptoms of deep vein thrombosis include bursting pains, swelling, cyanosis of the skin, superficial hyperthermia, soreness during palpation of the affected vein, swelling of the superficial veins. The final diagnosis is established according…

Portal Vein Thrombosis

Portal vein thrombosis is a complete or partial occlusion of the trunk of the portal vein and its branches by thrombotic masses. Pathology is manifested by abdominal syndrome, vomiting, diarrhea, signs of portal hypertension (ascites, splenomegaly, dilation of venous collaterals), complicated by bleeding from the upper digestive tract, intestinal infarction and other conditions. The basis…

Paget-Schretter Syndrome

Paget-Schretter syndrome is a primary thrombosis of the subclavian vein associated with intense and repetitive load on the upper extremities. The disease is quite rare, but characteristic of physically active young people and associated with the risk of complications. It is manifested by edema, a change in skin color, a feeling of bursting, pain, expansion…

Reticular Veins

Reticular veins is a chronic disease of the venous system, accompanied by a weakening of tone and an increase in the lumen of small subcutaneous vessels. Thin convoluted veins in the form of a mesh appear on the skin of the lower extremities, which usually do not bring subjective discomfort and are exclusively a cosmetic…