Functional disorders of the respiratory system ‒ these are various pathological symptoms that occur as a result of dysfunction of the respiratory organs. The most common are cough, shortness of breath, suffocation, hemoptysis, pulmonary bleeding. The causes of respiratory disorders are diagnosed using X-ray, endoscopic, functional techniques. Symptomatic therapy depends on particular manifestations and the totality of various symptoms, in all cases it cannot be uncontrolled and prolonged. Since the function of breathing is vital, any disorder of it requires face-to-face consultation with a doctor.

Disorders of respiratory function can be associated with a wide range of causes ‒ both physiological and pathological ‒ and have different mechanisms of development. Based on changes in the main parameters of breathing, the following types of disorders are distinguished:

  1. Changes in respiratory rate. It includes tachypnea (more often 20 per minute) and bradypnea (less often 12-10 per minute), apnea (respiratory arrest).
  2. Change in the depth of breathing. Shallow breathing is usually combined with increased respiratory movements, deep breathing – with a reduction in chest excursions.
  3. Change in the rhythm of breathing. This group includes pathological types of respiration: Kussmaul, Grokko, Biota (ataxic respiration), Cheyne-Stokes and other types.
  4. Mixed violations. They are represented by dyspnea (dyspnea) – a change in the respiratory rhythm and depth. Shortness of breath, in turn, may be accompanied by difficulty inhaling (inspiratory type) and exhaling (expiratory type).

Functional respiratory disorders can occur with pathologies and damage to the respiratory system at various levels: from the nasopharyngeal cavity to the brain. Depending on this criterion, functional disorders are distinguished:

  • Upper respiratory tract. They may be represented by difficulty in nasal breathing, sneezing. Obstacles to the passage of air at the level of the larynx and trachea can cause difficulty in inhaling and exhaling, asphyxia (suffocation).
  • Lungs and bronchi. It is more often manifested by coughing with or without sputum, shortness of breath, bronchospasm. Hemoptysis and hemoptoe (pulmonary bleeding) may occur.
  • Diaphragms. Dysfunction of the diaphragm is manifested by shortness of breath with the participation of auxiliary muscles in respiratory excursions, orthopnea.
  • The respiratory center. When the central nervous system structures involved in the regulation of the act of breathing are affected, respiratory apraxia, pathological types of breathing, apnea occur.

green phlegm

Green Phlegm

Green phlegm occurs with lobular pneumonia, chronic bronchitis and bronchiectatic disease, tuberculosis. Less often, the cause of the symptom is lung mycosis, cystic fibrosis, oncological processes. Thick green phlegm occurs in chronic sinusitis. For diagnostic purposes, instrumental (radiography, CT of the lungs, bronchoscopy) and laboratory techniques (microscopic and bacteriological examination of phlegm, blood analysis) are…

difficulty exhaling

Difficulty Exhaling

Difficulty exhaling (expiratory dyspnea) is a violation of respiratory function with a significant elongation of exhalation, accompanied by a subjective feeling of bursting, tightness in the chest. The symptom is pathognomonic for bronchial asthma. Expiratory dyspnea is also observed in bronchial obstructive diseases, chronic lung diseases, and some tumors. To identify the causes of difficult…

yellow phlegm

Yellow Phlegm

Yellow phlegm is formed in the pathology of the bronchopulmonary system: acute and chronic purulent bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung abscess and bronchiectatic disease. Rare causes of the symptom include pulmonary eosinophilia, foreign bodies entering the respiratory tract, oncological and congenital diseases. The diagnostic plan includes radiography and CT of the chest organs, bronchoscopy,…

purulent sputum

Purulent Sputum

Purulent sputum is a pathological discharge of the bronchi and trachea containing a large number of white blood cells, colored yellow, yellow-green or green. This symptom accompanies severe inflammation of the bronchial wall, observed in suppurative and neoplastic processes of the pulmonary parenchyma and pleura. Imaging and endoscopic diagnostic methods, as well as laboratory tests,…

deep dry cough

Deep Dry Cough

Deep dry cough is periodic or persistent coughing attacks without sputum, which occur when the lower respiratory system is irritated. They develop with infectious or non-infectious lesions of the trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleura, pathological processes in the mediastinum. To determine the causes of the symptom, a chest X-ray or fluorography, serological methods, a tuberculin test,…

sputum viscosity

Sputum Viscosity

Sputum viscosity is a symptom of chronic diseases of the lower respiratory tract, which include bronchitis, congestive pneumonia, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sputum viscosity is characteristic of tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, congenital and acquired bronchiectasis. To diagnose the cause of the discharge of thick sputum, X-ray examinations (CT, X-ray, bronchography), endoscopic and functional…

Wet Cough

Wet Cough

Wet cough is a cough in which mucous or mucopurulent sputum is secreted. The symptom develops against the background of chest pain (thoracalgia), wheezing, signs of general intoxication of the body. This type of cough is observed in bronchitis and other bronchopulmonary pathology, respiratory infections, heart failure. To find out the root cause of the…