Dermatology (Greek derma – skin, logos – doctrine, literally “the doctrine of the skin”) is a medical discipline, the objects of study of which are the skin, its appendages (hair, nails, sebaceous and sweat glands), mucous membranes, their structure and functioning, as well as diseases and diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Within dermatology as a medical science, there are special clinical sections that study individual diseases and their treatment (mycology, trichology). Dermatology is closely connected with venereology, cosmetology, allergology and other medical disciplines.
The skin is part of the integral structure of the body and is the largest human organ visible to the eye. It, as an indicator, reflects the state of all organs and systems of the body, protects them from mechanical damage and infection. As a rule, skin diseases indicate any violation of the functions of internal organs, unhealthy habits and lifestyle of the patient. Skin diseases, in turn, can lead to serious consequences for the body as a whole if their treatment is not started in a timely manner.
The features of the structure of the skin, the diversity of its functions and the impact of a large number of internal and external factors cause a variety of skin diseases, or dermatoses.
The impact of external, or exogenous, factors is very diverse. Physical and chemical agents cause inflammatory changes – dermatitis (burns, scuffs, diaper rash, etc.). Biological factors lead to fungal skin lesions – mycoses (epidermophytia, microsporia), pustular diseases – pyoderma (impetigo, furunculosis, hydradenitis), parasitic invasions (pediculosis, scabies), viral skin lesions (herpes, warts).
An important role in the occurrence of skin diseases is played by internal, or endogenous, factors: these are diseases of internal organs, chronic foci of infection, metabolic disorders, hypovitaminosis, disorders of the functions of the nervous system. All these factors can cause various pathological processes in the skin and its appendages, mucous membranes: inflammation, hemorrhages, pigmentation changes and even the death of individual skin structures (hair follicles, connective tissue fibers, etc.).
When the first signs of skin diseases appear (such as itching, burning, soreness, discoloration and relief of the skin, skin rashes), you should consult a dermatologist. An experienced doctor can make the correct diagnosis already at the first careful examination of the skin and careful collection of the patient’s life history. To clarify or confirm the diagnosis in dermatology, additional methods of examination of the skin, mucous membranes, hair, nails are widely used: instrumental, laboratory, radiological, special skin tests, etc.
Treatment of skin diseases requires patient patience and strict adherence to the treatment algorithm. An important role in the successful treatment is played by hygienic care of the affected skin, compliance with diet and drug therapy regimen. Medical treatment can be general and local. Physiotherapy and hardware procedures, psychotherapy, spa treatment, phytotherapy, homeopathy are widely used in dermatological practice. In some cases, in the absence of a clinical effect from conservative treatment, surgical intervention or the involvement of narrow specialists is indicated. Most often, the treatment is complex and combines several different methods at once. Today, with the help of the latest therapeutic and diagnostic techniques, dermatology allows to achieve the cure of such diseases that were considered incurable until quite recently.
Skin diseases are among the most common human diseases, and almost everyone faces one or another of their manifestations in their lifetime. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 20% of the world’s population suffers from skin diseases.
Many dermatoses have a chronic recurrent course and are difficult to treat. The most common are dermatitis of various genesis, eczema, fungal diseases, acne, skin warts, herpes simplex, psoriasis, skin cancer.
Modern dermatology pays great attention to the restoration of skin health, the study of the mechanisms of age-related and pathological changes in the skin, nails and hair, the treatment of oncological diseases, the search for new methods of diagnosis and treatment.
With the website “Medic Journal” you will always be aware of the most up-to-date information about skin diseases and methods of their treatment.