Speech disorders are various disorders of speech activity that prevent full-fledged speech communication and social interaction. Such diseases are spoken about if there are deviations in the functioning of the psychophysiological mechanisms of speech; the level of speech development does not correspond to the age norm; speech deficiencies are not overcome independently and can negatively affect the mental development of an individual. Pedagogical science – speech therapy, as well as friendly sciences of the medical cycle (neurophysiology, neurology, otolaryngology, dentistry, etc.) is engaged in studying and overcoming in children and adults.

Modern classifications are considered from the standpoint of etiopathogenesis (clinical and pedagogical classification) and in the aspect of disorders of the psychophysical organization of speech activity (psychological and pedagogical classification).

Thus, the clinical and pedagogical classification includes violations of written speech (dyslexia and alexia, dysgraphy and agraphy) and violations of oral speech, which are divided into disorders of phonational (external) speech design (dyslalia, dysarthria, rhinolalia, bradylalia, tachylalia, stuttering, voice disorders) and disorders of structural and semantic (internal) utterance design (alalia and aphasia).

The psychological and pedagogical classification identifies violations of the linguistic components of speech (FFN and ONR), as well as violations in the use of language means (stuttering, mutism). Complex combined defects are possible (FFN + stuttering, ONR + stuttering).

The whole variety of causes can be divided into biological and social. Thus, biological factors can affect different periods of ontogenesis. At the stage of intrauterine development and childbirth, fetal hypoxia, intrauterine infections, birth injuries, etc. have the most adverse effect on the maturation and subsequent functioning of the child’s brain structures; in the first months after birth, injuries, brain infections. Speech disorders in older people are usually associated with vascular lesions of the brain (stroke, rupture of a cerebral aneurysm), severe head injuries, brain tumors, and neurosurgical interventions.

Socio-psychological factors in children may be expressed in the lack of proper attention to the formation of children’s speech on the part of adults; incorrect speech of others; the need for a preschool child to simultaneously assimilate two language systems; excessive, age-inappropriate stimulation of the child’s speech development, stress, etc.

Predisposing conditions in children are the so-called critical periods in the development of speech function: 1-2 years, 3 years and 6-7 years. These periods are sensitive for the development of speech: at this time the most intensive formation of the psychophysiological basis of speech takes place, and the nervous mechanisms of regulation of speech activity are extremely vulnerable. Therefore, any, even seemingly insignificant biological or social factors acting during critical periods can lead to speech disorders.

This type of diseases are persistent and, having arisen under the influence of one or another factor, do not disappear on their own, without specially organized speech therapy. In addition, speech pathology negatively affects the development of the intellectual sphere, behavior and personality in general. At the same time, in most cases, speech disorders are reversible, and a purposeful and timely correction can restore the joy of communication to a person and prevent the development of secondary mental layers.

Speech therapy assistance is provided in the education system (specialized preschool institutions, speech therapy groups, speech therapy centers, schools for children with severe speech disorders, etc.), in the health care system (speech therapy rooms at polyclinics, dispensaries, hospitals, specialized medical centers, children’s homes, etc.), private development centers. In these institutions, speech therapists conduct consultations, comprehensive diagnostic examination and correction of speech disorders.

The course of speech therapy classes is conducted according to a special program in accordance with the specifics of speech disorders. Speech exercises, articulation and breathing exercises, speech therapy massage, logorhythmics are used in classes for the correction of speech disorders. Speech therapy is actively combined with drug therapy, psychotherapy, massage, physiotherapy, physical therapy, and, if necessary, surgical intervention.

Prevention actually begins from the moment of the birth of a new life and continues after birth, throughout life. It includes taking care of the favorable course of pregnancy, the neuropsychiatric and physical health of pregnant women and children, early detection of risk factors for speech disorders and their elimination. The speech environment is of crucial importance in the prevention of speech disorders in children.

You can get acquainted with the main types of speech pathology and forms of speech therapy in the sections “Speech disorders” and “Speech therapy” on the website “Medic Journal”. We also offer you a catalog of organizations providing speech therapy assistance, a convenient service for finding a speech therapist in Moscow with the possibility of online appointment for consultation and treatment.


Anarthria is the most severe degree of dysarthria, leading to almost complete absence of sound and voice reactions. The severity varies from complete inability to pronounce speech sounds to the presence of separate vocalizations, vowel sounds, syllables. Also, patients have difficulty chewing, swallowing, there is no facial expression, hypersalivation is expressed. Cerebral lesions are diagnosed…

Anomic Aphasia

Anomic aphasia is a variant of an aphasic disorder in which the nominative function of speech disintegrates. It is characterized by visual amnesia, forgetting the names of objects, speech pauses and difficulties in selecting words, verbal paraphasias. Diagnosis involves neurological examination (cerebral MRI, ultrasound of the arteries of the head and neck), neuropsychological and speech therapy…


Alexia is a total disorder of the reading skill, accompanied by the inability of visual perception and understanding of the text. With this violation, a person cannot learn to read or loses the ability to recognize letters and combine them into words. Alexia can develop in isolation or combined with aphasia, agraphy. The disorder is…


Alalia is a gross underdevelopment or complete absence of speech caused by organic lesions of the cortical speech centers of the brain that occurred in utero or in the first 3 years of a child’s life. There is a late appearance of speech reactions, poor vocabulary, agrammatism, violation of syllabic structure, sound pronunciation and phonemic…

Acoustic Dysgraphy

Acoustic dysgraphy is a partial disorder of the writing function caused by a lack of auditory perception. It appears by substitutions or mixing letters on the letter denoting phonetically similar sounds: hissing-whistling, hard-soft, sonorous-deaf, affricates and their components. At the same time, the sound reproduction of the child is correct. Dysgraphy is diagnosed based on…


Agraphy is a gross disorganization of written speech, which leads to the impossibility of implementing the act of writing. It is accompanied by the disintegration of the graphic image of sound, gross agrammatism, inability to write spontaneously, under dictation or independently, to copy the text. Diagnostics includes neurological examination, instrumental examinations (MRI, electroencephalography), neuropsychological and…

Agrammatic Dysgraphy

Agrammatic dysgraphy is repeated mistakes in writing caused by the underdevelopment of the grammatical structure of the language. It is characterized by incorrect word formation, inflection by gender, cases, numbers, violation of the coordination and control of words in a sentence, inaccuracy of expression of thoughts, insufficient coherence of presentation. Agrammatic dysgraphy is detected by…