Visual disturbances are caused by a disorder of the function of the central or peripheral part of the visual analyzer. They are widely represented in the clinic of ocular, neurological, endocrine diseases, injuries. To find out the cause of visual disorders, a comprehensive ophthalmological diagnosis is carried out: visometry, refraction determination, examination of the anterior segment of the eye and fundus, X-ray, tomography. Treatment can be conservative (vision correction, intraocular injections and instillations, hardware treatment) or surgical.
Types of visual disturbances
Visual disturbances are classified according to the time of occurrence (congenital and acquired), the degree of functional impairment (low vision, blindness), the stability of the process (non-progressive and progressive), etiology. Some of them are determined subjectively (flickering of flies, a veil in front of the eyes), others are revealed during an objective examination (ptosis of the eyelid, exophthalmos, different pupil sizes, etc.). Depending on the level of damage to the visual system, there are:
- central – the cause is damage to the visual cortex of the brain or the pathways. These include double vision, nystagmus, anisocoria, etc.
- peripheral – the etiology is associated with damage directly to the structures of the eye. They are represented by lacrimation, photophobia, pain and pain in the eyes, decreased vision.
Taking into account the nature of damage to the visual analyzer , there are two types of violations:
1 Organic. Due to the presence of an anatomical defect in any of the areas of the visual tract. They develop with cerebral hyperthesia, stroke, paralysis of the cranial nerves, injuries and inflammatory diseases of the eye.
2 Functional. They are represented by the pathology of refraction and accommodation. They include myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, strabismus.
Double vision (diplopia) is the simultaneous visualization of two images of one object. The symptom occurs with refractive errors, accommodation and convergence, neurological diseases, intoxication and injuries. Diagnostic methods for diplopia include visometry, computer autorefractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, MRI, radiography, laboratory tests and pharmacological tests. For immediate elimination of diplopia, occlusion of one eye is indicated.…