Toothache is a manifestation of tooth diseases (caries, pulpitis, periodontitis). With caries, acute pain occurs from taking cold or hot, sweet or sour food and disappears if the irritant is eliminated. With pulpitis, the nature of the pain is paroxysmal, giving off along the course of the trigeminal nerve to the temple or ear. Periodontitis is accompanied by a constant, localized, throbbing toothache, which increases from touching the diseased tooth. Toothache worsens general well-being, negatively affects performance, sleep and nutrition.
Toothache is the result of nerve damage that takes place directly in the tooth or in nearby tissue. The pain has an acute, unexpected character and radiates into the ear or temple. Exposure to heat or pressure can provoke the appearance of a throbbing or shooting toothache.
Deep caries with the penetration of infection into the tooth tissue can cause acute toothache, which occurs only when exposed to irritants. Cracks in the teeth, incorrectly sealed tooth, exposure of dentin in the neck of the tooth are the main causes of acute toothache.
Spontaneous toothache can occur due to pulpitis. At the same time, it appears both during meals, under the influence of stimuli on the affected dentin, and at rest, usually at night. The pain is usually constant aching or paroxysmal. A characteristic sign of pulpitic pain is irradiation in the ear or temple area, while it is almost impossible to tolerate dental pulpitic pain for a long time.
Periodontitis due to inflammation of the tissues around the tip of the tooth can cause constant aching or sharp pain. The pain is usually pulsating and increases when touching the tooth. The gum is swollen and inflamed, and the tooth is loose.
Acute toothache is most often explained by the presence of pulpitis, the cause of which is streptococci trapped in the pulp from the carious cavity and their toxins. Pathology with pulpitis is paroxysmal and occurs in the evening and at night. In the daytime, touching the affected tooth can provoke pain.
If the cause of toothache is periodontitis, then the pain is intense, since not only the tooth itself is involved in the inflammatory process, but also the bone tissue around the tip of the root of the teeth. The pain is caused by the gradual disintegration of the nerve ending and damage to the ligamentous apparatus. The tooth becomes mobile, is held worse in the jaw, which causes acute toothache at the slightest touch. When tapping on a sore tooth, the pain increases significantly.
If the cause of toothache is an abscess of the tooth, then the main symptom is the development of a delimited abscess in the oral cavity and the appearance of pulsating swelling, in the area of which there is a sharp soreness.
Complications can develop with the death of nerves, when painful sensations are not observed, but the inflammatory process continues. The most common complications are abscess, phlegmon and osteomyelitis.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of patient complaints, subjective and objective examination. Additionally, radiography and radiovisiography of the affected tooth are performed.
It is necessary to differentiate ordinary toothache from other diseases. Swelling of the jaw and inflammation of the maxillary sinus can cause pain that is similar to toothache with caries and periodontitis.
Therapeutic tactics depend on the causes of pain. So, if the cause is pulpitis, then the pulp is removed with subsequent filling of the channels.
But if a toothache occurs at night or in conditions where it is impossible to receive qualified dental care, it is necessary to stop the pain syndrome.
First of all, you need to brush your teeth and free the carious cavities from food residues. It is better to limit the intake of food, since leftovers can provoke a new attack of toothache. Rinsing of the affected tooth with a warm soda solution is shown. ibuprofen, metamizole sodium, acetylsalicylic acid and any other analgesic taken internally will help relieve an attack of toothache. Tablet preparations should not be applied to the affected tooth, as this can cause a chemical burn of the mucous membrane.
Folk remedies based on the beneficial effects of herbs and plants can relieve toothache for a while if it started, for example, on a hike. A plantain root applied to the tooth will ease the attack of toothache. Another effective remedy for relieving toothache in such conditions is finely chopped garlic wrapped in gauze and attached to the wrist of the hand from which the tooth hurts. Alcohol is not an analgesic, besides taking alcohol in combination with medications can cause complications.
Acupressure or acupuncture will help to quickly relieve an attack of toothache, which will give time for a visit to the dentist. It is necessary to press the hollow between the nose and the upper lip. The toothache may go away, but the main reason will remain. And, if the cause of toothache is caries, then the pain will return from time to time. As the carious disease progresses, its intensity increases. Toothache with periodontitis resumes after the end of the analgesic. Therefore, the above methods are emergency measures for acute toothache, and further treatment tactics depend on the underlying disease.