Deformation leads to a change in the proportions, size, shape of body parts, which is accompanied by external defects and impaired body function. Skeletal deformities are most common: the skull, spine, chest, bones and joints of the extremities. Soft tissues can also deform. The causes of such changes are congenital malformations, injuries, degenerative changes, tumors. Treatment depends on the etiology and severity of the pathological process, may include conservative therapy (medications, therapeutic and physical culture, physiotherapy treatment) and surgical correction.
Deformities of the body can be congenital or acquired. Congenital conditions include maxillofacial cleft, spina bifida, bone aplasia, congenital hip dislocation, hip dysplasia and many other congenital defects of the musculoskeletal system occur in utero as a result of:
- genetic mutations;
- mechanical compression of parts of the fetus (with little water, the presence of amniotic cords);
- effects of teratogens: infectious, chemical, ionizing and others.
Acquired deformities are more common than congenital ones. According to etiology , they are:
- post-traumatic (incorrectly fused fractures);
- postoperative (capsular contracture);
- post-infectious (paralytic deformities after polio);
- tumorous (osteomas);
- dystrophic-degenerative (deforming osteoarthritis);
- metabolic (rickety deformities of the skeleton), etc.
Modifiable risk factors play an essential role in their development: sedentary lifestyle, heavy physical exertion, overweight.
- Depending on the anatomical area that has undergone deformation, there are:
- Cranial deformities: brachycephaly, dolichocephaly, plagiocephaly.
- Deformities of the facial skeleton: curvature of the nasal septum, saddle nose, cleft palate, micrognathia.
- Deformities of the spine: scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis, flat back, wedge-shaped vertebrae.
- Deformities of the chest: keeled, funnel-shaped, cardiac hump, Poland syndrome.
- Deformities of limb bones: X-shaped, O-shaped, shortening of the limb.
- Deformities of joints: dislocation in dislocation, swelling in arthritis, bone growths in arthrosis.
- Deformities of the fingers: clinodactyly, Hippocratic fingers, hallux valgus of the first toe.
- Soft tissue deformities: contractures, scars, cleft lip, nipple retraction, navel deformities in hernia.