Adult acne — acne rashes that have arisen in adulthood or persist in the patient after 25 years. Their occurrence may be due to an endocrinological malfunction, disorders in the gastrointestinal tract, the use of hormonal drugs, genetic predisposition. Therefore, in the diagnosis, much attention is paid not only to the dermatological examination of rashes, but also to the survey and additional examination of the patient to identify the possible cause of acne. Methods of treatment of adult acne include: zinc preparations, vitamin A, antibiotic therapy, physiotherapy, mesotherapy.
Usually acne, which is a big problem in adolescence, gradually passes by the age of 20. Only in some people they remain or reappear after a certain break. Research data conducted by clinical dermatology suggests that approximately 3% of men and 5% of women aged 40-50 years have acne. Adult acne can also occur at an older age.
Men with an additional Y chromosome have piled up or globular adult acne that recurs throughout their lives. They often appear on the background of seborrhea and are localized on the entire surface of the skin, except for the feet and palms. Such acne is prone to scarring and the formation of keloid scars. In addition to genetic predisposition, adult acne can be caused by a certain hormonal imbalance in the body. So in women, their occurrence is usually associated with an increased level of androgens. At the same time, menstrual cycle disorders, hirsutism, male-type obesity, anovulatory cycles, infertility may be observed.
In turn, hyperandrogenism in women may be associated with various endocrine disorders: ovarian dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, adreno-genital syndrome. Often, adult acne is noted during menopause. With the exception of endocrine pathology, an increase in androgens is associated with excessive activity of enzymes that increase the content of free testosterone.
Another reason for the appearance of acne in adulthood may be the use of anabolic steroids, long-term use of androgens or glucocorticosteroids for therapeutic purposes. The use of these drugs leads to an increase in the level of androgens and excess sebum production. Diseases of the digestive system and intestinal dysbiosis can also cause adult acne.
When referring a patient with adult acne to a dermatologist, the doctor necessarily conducts a thorough collection of anamnestic data to identify the cause of their appearance. A visual examination of the rashes and their examination with magnification is performed — dermatoscopy. The separable elements are investigated by back-seeding.
If necessary, the patient is referred for consultation to a gastroenterologist or endocrinologist. The analysis of feces for dysbiosis is carried out. Women with adult acne are recommended to consult a gynecologist, study the level of testosterone and female sex hormones, ultrasound of the uterus and appendages.
If adult acne is detected, complex treatment is necessary. They use means that reduce the oiliness of the skin: zinc and sulfur preparations, large doses of vitamin A. To reduce inflammatory phenomena, local or general antibiotic therapy is carried out. Topical use of antibiotics is considered more harmless, but it is not always effective enough. Additionally, it is possible to use physiotherapeutic methods that reduce inflammatory processes. These include: UHF, medicinal electrophoresis, phonophoresis, magnetotherapy. Acne laser treatment, phototherapy, ozone therapy and cryotherapy of acne are carried out. For hormonal correction in women, oral contraceptive drugs are used.
Problematic facial skin requires constant care, regular facial cleansing and the use of cosmetic masks. Mesotherapy and cryomassage are actively used.