Diaper dermatitis is a local inflammation of the skin of a child of the first year of life caused by the adverse influence of chemical, physical, mechanical or microbial factors acting on the skin under diapers or diapers. Inflammatory changes are characterized by swelling and redness of the skin, an increase in local temperature. In more severe cases, a rash, wetness, cracks, erosion may appear in the affected area. The treatment and prevention consists in proper care of the baby’s skin, the use of high-quality diapers and care products designed specifically for children.
L22 Diaper dermatitis
Observations made by pediatric dermatology indicate that diaper dermatitis is one of the most common dermatological problems in infants. According to various data, from 35% to 50% of infants suffer from such dermatitis. Children who receive artificial feeding, have undergone a course of antibiotic therapy or have a tendency to allergic reactions are more susceptible to the disease.
The appearance is promoted by some features of the skin of young children: it is thin and delicate, absorbs substances on its surface well, while its barrier and protective functions are not yet fully developed.
Diaper dermatitis can be triggered by: skin friction on diapers, diapers or clothes (mechanical factor), exposure to feces or urine (chemical factor), overheating or increased skin moisture (physical factor), penetration of pathogenic bacteria or fungi into the skin (microbial factor). Improper use of skin care products (powders, creams and soaps), poor-quality diapers, poor rinsing of diapers can also cause diaper dermatitis.
The most susceptible to diaper dermatitis are the inguinal folds, the skin of the perineum, the fold between the buttocks, the axillary areas, the folds on the neck and behind the ears.
The manifestations of diaper dermatitis depend on its severity. A mild degree is characterized by redness and swelling of a limited area of the skin. The place of hyperemia is warmer to the touch than the healthy skin surrounding it. If treatment is not started on time, then an average degree of dermatitis develops: redness increases, cracks appear on the skin, individual pustular elements, erosions. Touching the area affected by dermatitis causes anxiety or crying of the child. With a severe degree of diaper dermatitis, erosion and cracks increase in size, wetness appears, detachment of the affected epidermis may occur with the formation of ulcers.
The general condition of the child with diaper dermatitis is disturbed due to burning and itching in the affected area. The baby is restless, often cries, sleeps poorly, possibly a decrease in appetite. In the absence of proper care and treatment, the course of diaper dermatitis can be complicated by the addition of a fungal or bacterial infection.
Diaper dermatitis treatment
The appearance of symptoms of diaper dermatitis is definitely a reason to consult a dermatologist or pediatrician. The doctor will conduct an examination, by interviewing parents will try to find out the cause of the problem, give recommendations on care and prescribe the most appropriate treatment for the child.
The treatment of diaper dermatitis, as well as its prevention, begins first of all with proper care of the baby’s skin. It is necessary to change diapers and diapers regularly, wash the baby after each defecation, arrange air baths more often, bathe every day, dry the skin after washing, carefully and thoroughly soaking it with a soft towel. For children with diaper dermatitis, baths with chamomile decoction, which have an anti-inflammatory effect, are well suited.
In the treatment of diaper dermatitis, lubrication of the affected areas with a solution of furacilin, fucarcin, rivanol is used. Ointments based on zinc and dexpanthenol are used. The addition of infection requires the use of local antiseptics, antibacterial ointments or antifungal agents. Disease with a mild and uncomplicated course is easily treatable and usually resolves after a few days. Advanced and severe forms of dermatitis require longer therapy, but are also successfully cured on an outpatient basis.
To prevent the appearance of diaper dermatitis will be able to elementary compliance with the rules of nursing. The baby’s skin should be clean, not too wet and not too dry. To prevent skin moisture, special baby powders are used. If the skin is excessively dry, it is treated with oil or baby cream. It is also important to have an adequate thermal regime so that the baby’s skin does not dry out and does not get moist from overheating.
It is necessary to thoroughly rinse the baby’s diapers and clothes to prevent the chemical substances of the detergent from affecting his skin. It is important to use “breathable” diapers and take care of the baby’s skin only with high-quality baby products. To eliminate friction or compression of the skin, diapers of the right size (not too large and not too small), clothes and diapers made of soft cotton fabric should be used.
The prevention of infection of the baby’s skin includes regular washing and bathing of the baby, ironing of his diapers and clothes, thorough hand washing before any contact with the baby’s skin.