Sternum x-ray in traumatology is indicated if a fracture of the sternum is suspected. Standard examination is performed in oblique and lateral projection. Direct projection is usually not used due to the imposition of intense shadows of the mediastinum and thoracic spine. The oblique picture is taken in a position on the stomach with a pillow under the trunk. The left arm is stretched along the body, the right is bent at the elbow joint. Sometimes oblique sternum x-ray is performed in a standing or lying position on the stomach without turning the trunk. In these cases, the X-rays are directed at an angle to the body. A lateral picture of the sternum is taken in the patient’s position lying on his side or standing with the maximum retraction of the arm posteriorly.
Indications of sternum x-ray
Sternum x-ray may be prescribed when a number of symptoms indicate developing diseases. As a rule, the study is assigned to patients who complain of severe shortness of breath, chest pain or cough.
- Accumulation of fluid or air in the pleural cavity. The accumulation of air is characterized by the protrusion of the diseased side, the intercostal spaces are smoothed out, and when breathing, the diseased side “lags behind” the healthy side – asymmetry is observed. This condition can be combined with the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. It is often a consequence of injury. Performing an X-ray of the lungs in such a situation allows you to save the patient’s life.
- Clarification of the localization of foreign bodies in the trachea or bronchi.This condition is dangerous with the development of lightning-fast asphyxia, as well as other severe complications. Therefore, it is necessary to find out how to undergo an X-ray of the lungs in such a situation, how often it can be done and what will become known after the diagnosis. Identification of the position of a foreign body, its size allows you to plan its removal surgically or otherwise
- Pleural adhesions or mooring. Adhesions are overgrown connective cords, the location of which is usually located between the serous membranes in the pleural cavity. Such adhesions can also be called pleurodiaphragmatic, they are total, occupying all pleural sections, or single, when pleural leaves are fused. Chest X-ray is necessary when a patient complains of chest pain, shortness of breath, temperature.
- Determination of pathologies of the diaphragm. With the help of X-rays, all kinds of tumors, diaphragmatitis or hernias can be detected. Diaphragmatic dystopias, dyskinesia and dystonia, as well as injuries, are not uncommon.
- Examination of mediastinal organs. Often an X-ray is prescribed in a situation where it is necessary to determine the localization of education in the thoracic cavity. This is more appropriate for the study of the anterior mediastinum. In the study, this cavity is divided into a retro-sternal section (anterior) and a central (posterior) section. Chest X-ray allows you to examine the cavity and identify the presence of pathological processes.
- Pneumonia. It is an inflammatory disease that is characterized by significant violations of the respiratory process. The disease requires rapid diagnosis and timely treatment. If you do not know how often an adult can do an X-ray of the lungs in such a situation, it is worth finding out that no more than once a year.
- Congestive heart failure. Insufficiency is a complex failure in hemodynamics. The cause of it is a violation of the functions of the heart, which are provoked by overwork of the cardiomyocyte, as well as defects that are from birth or acquired with age. Violation of such a plan can be detected by chest X-ray.
- Pneumothorax. Such a deviation can be traumatic and spontaneous, as well as artificial. If an artificial type of disease is a consequence of treatment, then traumatic and spontaneous need to be treated urgently. An overview radiography of the lungs allows you to diagnose the disease and assess its severity.
- Pleural effusion. It is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. The cause of the effusion allows you to determine its type – exudate or transudate. As a rule, it is not an independent disease, but a complication. It can appear due to pneumonia, congestive heart failure, tuberculosis, pulmonary embolism, as well as HIV infection and oncology. Lung radiography is performed in an upright position in straight and lateral projections.
- Pneumoperitoneum. This pathology means filling the abdominal cavity with gas. To find out what the lung X-ray shows is necessary in order to identify the cause of the disease and prescribe treatment adequate to the patient’s current condition. The disease is extremely serious, untimely treatment can become a threat to life, cause various complications.
- Emphysema of the lungs. It is characterized by a chronic course and a disorder of normal gas exchange in the lungs. Occurs due to overextension of the alveoli and their excessive air filling. The cause of emphysema is chronic bronchitis, but other lung diseases or heredity can also provoke it. To understand what provoked the disease, you need to do a chest X-ray.
Preparation of sternum x-ray
If you do not know whether it is possible to eat before the lung X-ray, whether you need to somehow prepare for the procedure, it is worth knowing that no diets will be needed. Preparation consists in finding out whether the patient has absolute contraindications to the procedure.
It is only necessary to consult with the attending physician, make an appointment for a diagnosis at a convenient time and visit the radiologist’s office at the appointed hour.
Methodology of conducting
It is best to find out how often you can do a chest X-ray procedure, as well as how the examination takes place, in advance. The patient needs to undress to the waist and remove all metal jewelry and accessories. The doctor is often asked to take the chain in his teeth so as not to take it off. After that, you can proceed to the chest X-ray and find out what the procedure shows.
The picture may need to be taken in two projections – side and straight. Each one is done literally for a few seconds, and the lung X-ray itself, regardless of the diagnosis, will not cause unpleasant sensations.
Before signing up for a sternum x-ray, you should find out if you can have a lung X-ray. Contraindications include pregnancy, as well as insufficient age of the patient – less than 15 years. However, the decision should be made by the doctor.