Prostate ultrasound is an echographic visualization of the structure of the prostate and adjacent organs (bladder, seminal vesicles). It is used in the diagnosis of adenomas, cysts, cancer, sclerosis, prostate microabcesses, prostatitis. Prostate ultrasound is performed by transabdominal (through the abdominal wall) or transrectal (through the rectum) access. In case of urination disorders, it is supplemented by an examination of the bladder with the determination of residual urine.
Prostate ultrasound requires minimal preparation. On the eve of a transrectal examination, the intestines should be cleaned with microclysms or laxatives. A condition for transabdominal ultrasound of the prostate is a well-filled bladder, because at the end of the study, after emptying it, the indicator of residual urine is determined.
If the attending physician informed that the study will be carried out with a full bladder, 1-2 hours before the ultrasound of the prostate, you need to drink about a liter of liquid. You need to take with you the results of tests and other diagnostic procedures, extracts from medical histories, the conclusions of consulting doctors and a referral for ultrasound.
In the process of two-dimensional prostate ultrasound, the doctor studies the condition of the capsule and the prostate parenchyma, evaluates the size and structure of the organ, identifies the altered areas, determines their number and diameter, the presence or absence of a clear border with the surrounding unchanged tissues. The Dopplerography mode is informative for the analysis of blood flow in the gland and amniotic plexuses. The method of prostate ultrasound is determined by the ultrasound doctor depending on the indications for the study, the patient’s subjective symptoms and other factors. Sonography is informative for primary detection and dynamic control:
- Malignant neoplasms – prostate cancer germinates the capsule of the organ, deforms its contours, changes the echostructure.
- Prostate adenomas – with benign hyperplasia, the gland is enlarged in size, has a spherical shape, the interlobular furrow is smoothed.
- Inflammatory changes – prostatitis is indicated by a change in the echogenicity of the organ, the blurring of its contours, the presence of parenchymal seals.
- Other prostate diseases – cysts, areas of calcification, sclerosis of the parenchyma of the gland have a peculiar sonographic picture.
- Pathology of seminal vesicles and ducts ‒ during the study, vesiculitis, cysts, areas of obturation, inflammatory processes of the seminal ducts and other pathological changes that cause infertility can be detected.
- Diseases of the bladder – with the help of ultrasound examination, bladder stones, neoplasms of the bladder and the mouth of the ureters, varicose veins of the pelvis can be detected.
It is important to understand that it is impossible to make a clinical diagnosis based on the echographic picture. The prostate ultrasound data are descriptive in nature and should be compared with the patient’s complaints, the results of an objective examination, laboratory tests and other methods of instrumental visualization. The same ultrasound phenomena can be observed in different conditions, therefore they require face-to-face consultation with a urologist.
Prostate ultrasound is one of the most frequently prescribed and demanded studies in urological practice. The procedure is available to patients, is carried out in many diagnostic, outpatient and inpatient medical institutions of the capital, has a democratic cost. Despite the low price, prostate ultrasound is a highly informative diagnostic method that allows you to perform a preventive examination in a short time, get a preliminary diagnosis, and monitor treatment. At the same time, on the basis of ultrasound data alone, it is impossible to make a differential diagnosis of some diseases, therefore, additional clarifying diagnostics may be required – MRI of the prostate, a biopsy of the gland.