Abdominal aorta ultrasound are ultrasound methods that allow for qualitative and quantitative analysis of blood flow and determine the causes of its disorders in the abdominal aorta and the parietal and visceral branches extending from it. It includes Doppler and duplex scanning modes. Ultrasound of the aorta is informative for detecting aneurysmal, occlusive, stenosing and other lesions of the arterial trunk, determining the localization of pathology, the extent and degree of blood flow disorders.
During the procedure, the ultrasound doctor will examine the area from the last thoracic vertebra to the sacrum. Standard ultrasound does not make it possible to assess the condition of the vessels in full, so Dopplerography is used to diagnose the aorta. It is based on the possibility of reflecting ultrasound waves from objects in motion. During Dopplerography, the branches of the aorta and it itself are colored in different colors, which helps the ultrasound specialist to make a conclusion about the state of blood flow.
The main task within the framework of this procedure is the detection of an aneurysm. It is characterized by thinning of the vessel wall and the appearance of a pouch. This leads to improper blood flow in the vessel. The disease is dangerous by rupture of the vessel wall and profuse bleeding. Diagnosis of the abdominal aorta is carried out in the following cases:
- The appearance of throbbing pain in the head;
- The presence of arterial hypertension in the patient;
- Severe abdominal pain on the left side, passing into the lower back;
- The presence of memory problems in the patient;
- Changing the shape of the abdomen;
- Causeless nausea and repeated vomiting;
- The presence of blood secretions in the feces;
- Presence of pulsation in the middle part of the abdomen;
- Lowering or increasing the pressure;
- Previously suffered a heart attack or stroke;
- Suspected aneurysm in a smoking patient.
If you have been assigned an ultrasound examination of the abdominal part of the aorta, then you should properly prepare for it. Before such an ultrasound, it is necessary to cleanse the intestines and prevent flatulence. In the absence of preparation, the study may be uninformative, since the object under study is located behind the intestine, and if it is full, it will be almost impossible to see the artery. You should start preparing for ultrasound 3 days before the proposed study. At this time, you should adhere to certain dietary rules, as well as take certain medications. From the diet it is necessary to completely exclude products that can cause the appearance of gases: fermented dairy products, legumes / peas, bread (black), cabbage.
If necessary, 2 days before the study, the doctor will recommend medications that improve digestion. 1 day before the ultrasound in the evening, the intestines should be cleaned naturally or with an enema. The last time you can eat is 8 hours before the ultrasound. The last time you can drink is 2 hours before the study. Preparation is not carried out only if a patient is admitted to the hospital with complaints of acute abdominal pain. In this case, emergency care may be required, and the preparation time may adversely affect the patient’s health.
Methodology of conducting
Do not be afraid, the study is completely painless and safe, it is carried out in the same way as a simple ultrasound.
During ultrasound, the patient lies on his back. An ultrasound specialist drives an ultrasound sensor across the abdomen, performing diagnostics of the abdominal aorta. The duration of the procedure is about half an hour. The process of the procedure can be observed by the subject on a large screen, which is located opposite the couch. If necessary, the ultrasound doctor asks the necessary questions and comments on what is happening on the screen.
Immediately after the study, a conclusion is issued. To prescribe treatment or adjust it, you need to contact the attending doctor who referred you for ultrasound.
Diseases that can be detected during ultrasound examination of the abdominal part of the aorta:
- dissection of the aorta (which is characterized by a rupture of the walls);
- aneurysm (exhaustion of the abdominal artery wall will be clearly noticeable);
- occlusion (violation of vascular patency, in the picture you will notice an interruption of blood flow);
- atherosclerosis (the appearance of cholesterol plaques, an ultrasound specialist diagnoses them by thickening the artery wall);
- stenosis (the main branch of the aorta narrows);
- calcinosis (formation of calcium salts).
Thanks to Dopplerography, it is possible to obtain information about the exact size of blood vessels, identify certain pathologies, determine the possibility of their occurrence, understand the speed of blood flow and study in detail places with obstructed blood flow. The abdominal aorta should not be more than 3 centimeters in thickness. With a smaller diameter, there is a high probability of atherosclerosis or stenosis.
With a diameter of more than 3 centimeters, an aneurysm is suspected. The ultrasound doctor performs an examination of the aorta, the diagnosis is made only by the doctor who prescribed the diagnosis. If the size of the abdominal aorta exceeds 5 centimeters, an operation will be prescribed in order to remove the cause of the pathology. Otherwise, it may be dangerous for the patient’s life. The procedure is prescribed to patients predisposed to cardiovascular diseases, as well as in the elderly.
With the detection of pathology at an early stage of its development, and the appointment of appropriate treatment, the chances of a speedy recovery increase. Advanced blood flow pathologies are quite difficult to treat and in most cases involve surgery.