Otolaryngology is a branch of clinical medicine that studies the physiology and pathology of the throat, nose, ear and adjacent anatomical areas, as well as developing methods for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of these organs. Otolaryngologists or ENT doctors (laryngootorinologists) are engaged in the treatment of pathology of the throat, nose and ear. Anatomical proximity and functional interrelation of ENT organs with each other led to the unification of their diseases into one area of medical science.

The fields of otolaryngology are surdology, which studies hearing disorders (deafness, deafness) and phoniatry, which studies voice formation disorders (dysphonia).

Disorders of the ear, nose and throat accompany a person from early childhood throughout life. For the most part, these diseases are inflammatory in nature, since the ENT organs are closely connected and are in constant interaction with the environment. The mucous membranes of ENT organs contain a large number of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, which, at the slightest imbalance in the body, turn into pathogenic and lead to disease.

Among the most common disorders of the nasal cavity are adenoids, rhinitis, sinusitis, sinusitis, injuries of the nasal septum, nosebleeds. Of ear disorders, otitis media, tympanitis, eustachiitis, traumatic injuries are often found. Common throat disorders include laryngitis, pharyngitis, chronic tonsillitis, etc. acute and chronic conditions. Megacities with their large crowding and poor ecology are a particularly favorable background for the development of ENT disorders.

Disorders of the ear, nose and throat are often complications of viral infections and develop against a background of weakened immunity. Each of the numerous disorders of the ENT organs has its own symptoms and clinical picture. Particular alertness should cause the appearance of the following symptoms: persistent headaches, enlarged submandibular lymph nodes, sore throat and ears, hearing and smell impairment, difficulty in nasal breathing, discharge from the nose or ear. If several of these symptoms are present after a cold, then we can talk about neglected inflammation.

Delaying treatment or self-treatment of any ENT pathology is fraught with serious health consequences. The disease of one of these organs can cause complications from the other. Often a banal runny nose causes complications such as otitis or sinusitis. Therefore, their treatment should always be interrelated and comprehensive. Prolonged inflammatory processes of the nose, ear and throat can also cause damage to other organs: the heart, kidneys, joints. In addition, anatomical proximity to the brain and eyes, developed innervation and blood supply to the head makes it necessary to consider ENT disorders as one of the most serious in terms of the development of life-threatening complications.

Modern methods of diagnosis of ENT pathology include laboratory tests, endoscopic and computer studies of the nose, throat, and ear, ultrasound, puncture of the paranasal sinuses.

The most important task in the treatment of otolaryngological disorders is to prevent the transition of the disease into a chronic form. Therapeutic (medical, physiotherapeutic) and surgical methods are used in the treatment of ENT pathology. In recent years, minimally invasive laser and endoscopic methods have been actively used for the treatment of otolaryngological pathology, as well as methods of cosmetic and plastic surgery.

The medical directory of diseases on the website “Medic Journal” will become your reliable guide on the prevention and treatment of ENT disorders.


Adenoids are a pathological overgrowth of the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharyngeal tonsil, more often in children 3-10 years old. It is accompanied by difficulty in free nasal breathing, snoring during sleep, nasal voice, runny nose. It leads to frequent colds and inflammation in the middle ear, hearing loss, voice changes, slurred speech, developmental delay,…


Adenoiditis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsil of the lymphopharyngeal ring. The main symptoms include a feeling of discomfort inside the nose, night snoring, lack of nasal breathing, mucous or purulent discharge, closed nasal nasal, dry paroxysmal cough, intoxication syndrome, sleep disorders. Diagnosis is based on the patient’s survey data, mesopharyngoscopy,…

Agranulocytic Angina

Agranulocytic angina is an atypical form of tonsillitis caused by a violation of granulocytopoiesis. The main clinical manifestations are represented by pyretic fever, pain when swallowing, ulcerative-necrotic changes in the oral mucosa, increased salivation, regional lymphadenopathy. Diagnosis includes the collection of anamnestic data, visual examination, laboratory blood tests and bone marrow puncture. Specific treatment requires…

Nasal Septum Abscess

Nasal septum abscess is a limited cavity in the submucosal layer of the cartilaginous part of the nasal septum, filled with purulent masses. The main manifestations of the disease are nasal breathing disorders, local soreness, headache, hyperthermia and general weakness. The diagnostic program includes anterior rhinoscopy, routine laboratory blood tests, puncture of the nasal abscess…