Plastic surgery is a specialized branch of surgery that deals with surgical interventions aimed at correcting and restoring the forms and functions of tissues, organs or areas of the human body that have undergone changes. The concept of “plastic surgery” appeared in medical circles as early as 1798 thanks to the French surgeon Desolt, and came into wide circulation after the publication of the “Handbook of Plastic Surgery” by Zeiss in 1893. Since then, many surgical techniques have been created designed to solve various aesthetic problems, thanks to which plastic surgery has ceased to be considered something exclusive in modern society.
Modern technologies are designed to solve the plastic problems of patients dissatisfied with their appearance or experiencing functional problems. The increasing number of plastic surgeries on the face, chest, abdomen, legs, buttocks, intimate plastic surgery every year testifies to the huge demand for aesthetic and reconstructive medicine.

In different countries, different nationalities have been developing their own ideals of beauty for centuries, associated with historical and geographical traditions, social foundations. Our modern ideas of beauty are largely shaped by customs and fashion. And today, as well as many centuries ago, wanting to passionately match fashion, people put a lot of effort into it.

There is no doubt that the beauty of a person is purely individual. In youth, beauty is charming, in maturity it is perfect, in old age it is peculiar. Each person has his own unique beauty, which nature has endowed him with. However, not all people favorably perceive their own appearance. If somewhere nature made a mistake and did not reward perfect forms, then this can deprive a person of self-confidence, prevent the building of a career and personal relationships.

Cosmetic or aesthetic plastic surgery solves the problems of improving a person’s appearance. It accounts for 1/3 of all plastic surgeries performed. Examples of aesthetic correction of appearance defects can be operations to correct the shape of the nose (rhinoplasty), auricles (otoplasty), anti-aging operations to eliminate wrinkles, etc.

The main activity of plastic surgery is the solution of problems related to the elimination of defects and defects of the body caused by injuries or congenital defects to ensure the normal functioning of the human body. Reconstructive plastic surgery deals with the solution of these problems. The field of reconstructive surgery is very diverse: from the removal of skin neoplasms to time-consuming operations for the reconstruction of skin, muscle and bone tissues.

Aesthetic and reconstructive surgery are closely interrelated, use similar techniques and influence each other’s development. In addition, reconstructive surgery solves not only functional, but also aesthetic problems.

In order to solve the problems of plastic surgery, a number of surgical and non-surgical techniques are used to change the appearance and create aesthetic proportions of the body and face.

The most popular operations in plastic surgery are breast augmentation operations. In facial plastic surgery, blepharoplasty operations are in the greatest demand. According to statistics, the most urgent problem of plastic surgery of the body is liposuction surgery.

By itself, the elimination of aesthetic problems is not a panacea for solving psychological or social problems, therefore, a plastic surgeon during a preliminary consultation should assess the degree of risk and expectations of the patient. There are strictly defined indications and contraindications for plastic surgery, preoperative examination and preparation are carried out before them. This minimizes the risks of complications from plastic surgery.

With the Medical Directory of Diseases, you will navigate through the website “Beauty and Medicine”, where you will be able to get acquainted with the most up-to-date information from the world of plastic surgery, as well as choose a clinic and a doctor to whom you can entrust the solution of your aesthetic problems.

Double Chin

Double chin is formed by fat and skin folds under the edge of the lower jaw and in the neck area. The appearance of a second chin significantly reduces the attractiveness of the face, makes the profile unsightly, visually adds extra years and kilograms, so its owners have a great desire to get rid of…

Dowager Hump

Dowager hump is a local accumulation of adipose tissue in the area of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. Externally, it is manifested by stooping, hunched figure. However, often the dowager hump is not only an aesthetic problem, it can be accompanied by pain in the shoulder girdle, cephalgia, clicks and crunches when turning…


Bryli is a consequence of the weakening of the skin tone and fatty tissue in the middle part of the face, leading to sagging tissues and disruption of the natural oval of the face. Swollen cheeks and “wings” weigh down the lower part of the face and visually add extra years. Usually, this aesthetic disadvantage…

Large Nose

Large nose – individual features of the ratio of length, width, height of the outer nose, in which it looks disproportionate to other parts of the face. Too big a nose violates the harmony of facial features, attracts attention and causes ridicule of others, contributes to the development of complexes in relation to its owner’s…

Large Buttocks

Large buttocks, as a rule, are formed by excess fat in this area and are usually combined with increased weight. However, lush buttocks can also occur in fairly slender women, being an individual feature of their figure. Therefore, the main “claims” of the owners  are related not so much to their size as to their…

Large Ears

Large ears – an increase in the size of individual parts or the entire auricle. Large ears lead to a violation of the aesthetic proportions of the face; they are often combined with lop-eared, asymmetry, deformity of the outer ear; they cause isolation and complexes, especially in adolescence. Large ears usually do not interfere with…

Breast Asymmetry

Breast asymmetry is the difference in the size and shape of the left and right breast. In most cases, breast asymmetry is an individual feature of a woman and represents an exclusively aesthetic disadvantage. Breast asymmetry can manifest itself in unilateral micro- or macromastia, tubular structure of the mammary glands, mastoptosis, etc. Depending on the…