Functional digestive disorders are periodically occurring or long-term discomfort phenomena that indicate a violation of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Diseases of the digestive system are often accompanied by heartburn and belching, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, dry mouth, dysphagia, flatulence and other symptoms. The causes of these phenomena are established using instrumental techniques (X-ray, endoscopy, ultrasound), laboratory tests (analysis of feces, gastric and duodenal juice, liver samples), EFI, diagnostic operations. To relieve unpleasant sensations, a therapeutic diet, herbal preparations, over-the-counter pharmacopreparations (antispasmodics, laxatives) can be used.

In the practice of a gastroenterologist, functional digestive disorders are quite common. They are accompanied by a wide range of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, infectious, surgical, neuropsychiatric diseases. Sometimes behavioral factors lead to disorders of digestive function: errors in diet, abuse of caffeine and alcohol, psychoemotional shocks, prolonged use of certain drugs (corticosteroids, NSAIDs). Depending on the predominant localization of dysfunction , the following groups of symptoms of digestive disorders are distinguished:

  • Oropharyngeal: dry mouth, plaque on the tongue, halitosis, hiccups.
  • Esophageal: dysphagia, heartburn.
  • Gastroduodenal: belching (with air, gas, acidic chyme), nausea, vomiting.
  • Biliary: belching with bitterness (bile).
  • Intestinal: bloating, colicky pains, changes in the regularity and nature of stool (constipation, diarrhea) and the color of bowel movements.

Functional digestive disorders should always cause alertness due to the fact that acute surgical diseases (appendicitis, peritonitis), cardiovascular catastrophes (hypertensive crisis, myocardial infarction), brain damage (TBI, stroke) and other urgent conditions (poisoning, intoxication, dangerous infections) can be masked behind them. In this regard, any pathological symptoms from the digestive organs should not be ignored by the patient. They require careful study and objective assessment by the relevant medical specialists.

constipation in adults

Constipation in Adults

Constipation in adults is a decrease in the frequency of stool in adulthood, which is accompanied by a change in the consistency of feces, difficulties and soreness during defecation. The symptom is caused by alimentary and psychogenic factors, functional intestinal disorders, inflammatory and tumor processes. To verify the cause of constipation, irrigoscopy, colonoscopy, coprogram and…

constipation during pregnancy

Constipation During Pregnancy

Constipation during pregnancy is a violation of the bowel, manifested by a delay in defecation or insufficient emptying, which often occurs in women at different gestation periods. Stool retention is accompanied by pain in the left iliac region, bloating. More rare defecation is caused by physiological changes in the woman’s body, gestational and intestinal pathology.…

constipation

Constipation

Constipation is a violation of the defecation process, characterized by the absence of stool for more than 48 hours or insufficient bowel movement. Manifestations of constipation are a decrease in the usual frequency of defecation, small portions of stool, a feeling of incomplete bowel emptying, abdominal pain. Сauses the development of intestinal dysbiosis, chronic colitis,…

diarrhea in children

Diarrhea in Children

Diarrhea in children can be caused by physiological factors (errors in nutrition, stress) or pathological causes, which include intestinal infections, food allergies, inflammatory and drug-induced intestinal damage. To diagnose the etiological factors of the disease, ultrasound and X-ray imaging of the gastrointestinal tract, a coprogram and bacteriological examination of feces, general clinical and serological blood…

bitter taste in mouth

Bitter Taste in Mouth

Bitter taste in mouth is a constant or periodic unpleasant feeling of bitterness, which is not always associated with eating. The symptom occurs in pregnant women, smokers, when eating low-quality food. The main pathological causes of a bitter taste are diseases of the liver and biliary system, gastrointestinal diseases, local processes in the oral cavity.…

bitter belching

Bitter Belching

Bitter belching is an involuntary throwing of air and liquid contents into the oral cavity due to the contraction of the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, after which the patient feels the taste of bitterness in the mouth. Episodic eructation may be associated with nutritional errors, but regurgitation is more often observed in diseases…

watery diarrhea

Watery Diarrhea

Watery diarrhea is repeated (up to 15-20 times a day) defecation, which is accompanied by the release of unformed liquid stool. Usually the symptom is combined with other dyspeptic disorders: vomiting, cramps, abdominal pain. Diarrhea with water is most often associated with intestinal infections, but can be observed with non-infectious intestinal pathologies, enzyme deficiency. Ultrasound,…