Functional disorders of the ENT organs are clinical manifestations of diseases of the nasopharynx, larynx, hearing organ, accompanied by a violation of the function of these structures. Symptoms of ENT organ dysfunction are diverse: sore throat, nasal congestion, hearing loss, tinnitus, impaired sense of smell, etc. Diagnostics includes a comprehensive examination of an otolaryngologist with pharyngoscopy, otoscopy, rhinoscopy, if necessary – video endoscopy, functional tests. Symptomatic therapy (gargling, inhalation, instillation of drops) is possible only with an established diagnosis in addition to etiotropic treatment.

ENT organs (nose, pharynx, larynx, ear) perform the most important functions in the human body: they participate in the implementation of external respiration and food intake, provide speech, hearing, smell, balance. Functionally, they are closely related to other systems – respiratory, digestive, nervous, etc., but these organs have even closer anatomical relationships with each other. It is no coincidence that the pathology of one of them often leads to a cascade of pathological reactions and dysfunction of the entire ear-throat-nose system.

ENT organs are susceptible to infectious processes (rhinitis, otitis, pharyngitis, etc.), damage (injuries, burns), the development of neoplasms (polyps, papillomas, cancer), damage to the nervous system (cochlear neuritis, laryngospasm, laryngeal paralysis). Any pathology is accompanied by certain local functional disorders and general symptoms. Systemic manifestations include intoxication syndrome, hyperthermia, headache; local disorders vary depending on the affected structures:

  • Disorders of the nasal function: nasal congestion, nasal breathing disorders, sneezing, mucus separation, deterioration of the sense of smell, nasal voice.
  • Disorders of the pharynx: sore throat, pain when swallowing, snoring, nasal.
  • Laryngeal disorders: hoarseness of voice, dysphonia, sensation of a foreign body in the throat, barking cough.
  • Disorders of ear function: hearing impairment, stuffiness and tinnitus, dizziness, otalgia, otorrhea.

ENT organs are located in close proximity to the brain and have extensive arterial and venous connections with it, which causes a high risk of intracranial complications and makes self-medication unacceptable. In case of any violations on the part of the anatomical and functional system under consideration, a full-time consultation of an otorhinolaryngologist with a comprehensive clinical and instrumental examination is necessary.



Tinnitus is a symptom in which a person hears extraneous sounds (crackling, ringing, buzzing) in the absence of their obvious source. There are several etiological factors of this condition: exposure to loud sounds, diseases and tumors of the hearing organ, hypertension and other vascular disorders. To determine the cause of tinnitus, audiometry with tuning fork…



Sneezing normally occurs under the influence of chemical or physical stimuli of the nasal mucosa, when in a dry room, pregnancy. The pathological symptom occurs in acute and chronic rhinitis, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis and nasal polyps. Diagnostics includes anterior and posterior rhinoscopy, radiography of the paranasal sinuses, microbiological and cytological analysis of a nasal smear.…



Anosmia is a complete loss of sensitivity to odors. The symptom is physiological in elderly people, but more often olfactory disorders occur in smokers, with various diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses, brain pathologies. To establish the root cause of anosmia, olfactometry, examination of ENT organs, X-ray and tomographic methods of brain imaging, laboratory…

sore throat

Sore Throat

Sore throat is an uncomfortable tickling, scratching, stinging, tingling sensation in the pharynx or larynx. They are often combined with coughing and precede the appearance of pain. Tickling occurs in diseases of the ENT organs, bronchi, lungs, thyroid gland, upper gastrointestinal tract, a number of occupational diseases and allergies. In order to clarify the causes…



Dysosmia is a variety of disorders of the perception of odors, which are manifested by an increase or decrease in olfactory function, an inability to recognize familiar aromas. Dysosmia occurs in inflammatory processes in the nasal cavity, traumatic brain injuries, and other neurological or psychiatric diseases. To find out the root cause of dysosmia, olfactometry,…

ear congestion

Ear Сongestion

Ear congestion is a subjective unpleasant sensation in the form of a feeling of pressure in the ear, “fullness” of the ear canal, hearing loss. The symptom is observed with pressure drops, inflammatory diseases of the auditory analyzer and nasopharynx, taking certain medications. To determine the cause of congestion, otoscopy, audiometry, X-ray examination of the…

nasal congestion

Nasal Congestion

Nasal congestion is a difficulty in nasal breathing. The symptom is often accompanied by nasal discharge, headaches, sleep disorders. Unpleasant manifestations can be caused by both physiological causes and various diseases of the nasal cavity, allergic reactions, pathologies of anatomical structures. To identify the cause of congestion, rhinoscopy, radiography of the paranasal sinuses, laboratory tests…