Laboratory syndromes are deviations from the norm of blood, urine and other biological secretions, indicating the course of certain pathological processes in the body. They may indicate inflammatory, allergic, endocrine-metabolic, coagulopathic and other disorders. They are diagnosed with the help of general clinical, biochemical analyses by special methods. To normalize laboratory parameters, it is necessary to find out the cause of the disorders and conduct qualified etiopathogenetic treatment of the underlying disease, after which repeat the control analysis.

Laboratory changes are a sensitive marker of the development of pathology. They can occur long before the onset of symptoms of the disease and persist for a long time after clinical recovery. First of all, with the development of various pathological processes, the indicators of peripheral blood and urine change. In this case, deviations can occur both in the direction of increasing and decreasing various parameters.

  1. Blood changes. Most diseases are accompanied by shifts in the cellular composition of the blood (anemia, leukocytosis or leukopenia, an increase or decrease in ESR, etc.). There may be a deviation from the norm of biochemical parameters (glucose, bilirubin, cholesterol) and trace element status, providing homeostasis of the internal environment of the body. Therefore, the first stage of examination of any patient is to determine the main parameters of general clinical analysis and blood biochemistry.
  2. Changes in urine. With various pathologies, the amount of urine excreted may increase or decrease (polyuria, oliguria), changes in its specific gravity (hyper- and hypostenuria) occur, blood elements appear in urine: hemoglobin (hemoglobinuria), erythrocytes (hematuria), leukocytes (leukocyturia). A general urinalysis is also a mandatory step towards making a diagnosis.
  3. Changes in the properties of feces. A change in the amount, consistency, smell, color of feces can be noticed by the patient himself. Using laboratory methods, the appearance of various uncharacteristic impurities (mucus, starch, fats), shaped elements (leukocytes, erythrocytes), undigested food residues is evaluated.

The presence of a laboratory syndrome is necessarily taken into account when making a clinical diagnosis, along with physical data and the results of instrumental diagnostics. Dynamic changes in blood and urine parameters are used to monitor the course of pathology and the effectiveness of treatment. Transient deviations in the analyses may be associated with lifestyle, external influences ‒ in this case, the indicators normalize soon after the elimination of the causal factor without special medical intervention.



Hyperammonemia is a severe pathological condition characterized by an increase in the concentration of ammonia (NH3) in the blood serum of more than 60 mmol/l. The causes may be genetically determined defects of ornithine cycle enzymes in the liver or severe liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis). The main clinical symptoms include repeated vomiting, impaired consciousness, convulsions.…



Hemoglobinuria is a series of syndromes based on intravascular damage to erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin outside the vascular bed and into the urine. The main symptom is the dark color of urine due to the oxyhemoglobin present in it. Arthralgia, fever, vomiting, pallor of the skin, jaundice are possible. The diagnosis requires confirmation…



Hematuria is a laboratory symptom characterized by the presence of red blood cells in the urine. The causes may be inflammatory kidney diseases, urolithiasis, malignant neoplasms. Depending on the degree of hematuria, the color of urine can change to red, brown, “the color of meat slops”, but in the vast majority of cases remains unchanged.…



Bilirubinuria is a pathological condition characterized by the presence of bilirubin in the urine. The causes are diseases of the liver and biliary tract . A high concentration of bilirubin turns urine dark brown. The bilirubinuria test together with the urobilinogenuria test (detection of bilirubin derivatives in urine) is used for differential diagnosis of jaundice…



Bacteriuria is a laboratory symptom characterized by the presence of bacteria in the urine. Most often, this indicates an infection of the urinary tract (kidneys, bladder), but may be a harmless laboratory finding. Clinical manifestations can be diverse – from an absolutely asymptomatic course to pronounced signs (fever, lower back pain, urination disorders). The presence…



Basophilia (basophilic leukocytosis) is an increase in the basophil content of more than 150 in 1 ml of blood or more than 1% of the total number of leukocytes. It is very often accompanied by eosinophilia, since basophils and eosinophils are jointly involved in many pathological reactions. The causes of basophilia are allergic, inflammatory, oncohematological…



Amylorrhea is the appearance of a large number of starch grains in the feces, which indicates a violation of the digestion of carbohydrates. The symptom occurs with enzyme deficiency – chronic pancreatitis, enteritis, pancreatic tumors. Amylorrhea is observed with increased peristalsis, which happens with IBS, intestinal infections, hyperacid gastritis. The diagnostic plan involves carrying out…