MRI adrenal gland is a study of the structure of the adrenal glands based on the registration of the nuclear magnetic response (resonance) of the gland tissues in response to an induced magnetic field. It is aimed at identifying volumetric formations of the gland, clarifying their localization, structure, contours, and relationship with surrounding tissues, which is necessary for planning surgical treatment. The use of contrast enhancement in MRI allows the verification of malignant (including metastatic) and benign neoplasms of the adrenal glands.
The main tasks assigned to the MRI adrenal gland are to clarify the nature of changes in the glands in clinical manifestations; differentiation of incidents detected by ultrasound or CT; assessment of adrenal lesions in patients with a history of cancer. MRI is used to plan operational tactics for adrenal tumors, allows you to clearly establish the topographic location of the tumor in the gland. With the help of MRI, retroperitoneal tissue and the state of lymph nodes are evaluated. MRI adrenal gland serves as a method of diagnostic choice in patients with contraindications to contrast CT with intolerance to iodine-containing drugs.
MRI is contraindicated in the presence of various implanted electronic or metal devices in the patient’s body: artificial pacemakers (pacemakers), cochlear prostheses, ferromagnetic clips, metal vascular clips or foreign bodies, etc. Conditional limitations to MRI are the patient’s weight over 120 kg, pregnancy, a state of psychomotor agitation, epilepsy, attacks of loss of consciousness.
Methodology of conducting
Since a powerful magnetic field is created by an MRI adrenal gland with a tomograph, before the procedure, all removable metal objects (clothing, jewelry, accessories, hearing aids, etc.) should be removed from the body, as well as magnetic media (credit cards, floppy disks, etc.) should be removed from the pockets. The patient is placed on a conveyor table, which is brought into the tunnel of the scanning device of the tomograph. If it is necessary to perform a dynamic contrast MRI, intravenous administration of paramagnetic contrast (magnevista, gadolinium) is performed before the start of the scan.
During the scanning process, the patient is required to maintain a stationary body position, since unnecessary movements can worsen the quality of tomograms. The work of the tomograph is accompanied by a rhythmic knock, which should not cause concern. The doctor performing the adrenal MRI procedure will keep in touch with the patient using the built-in microphone. The diagnostic time is about 30-45 minutes.
Interpretation of results
When receiving the results of MRI adrenal gland, the localization, shape, size, structure of the glands, the condition of the paranephral fiber, visible lymph nodes are evaluated. After the introduction of contrast, the features of the accumulation of the drug in the adrenal tissues are studied. Normally, the glands are defined as homogeneous structures that differentiate well against the background of fatty tissue. From benign pathological formations of the adrenal glands, MRI can detect adenomas, pheochromocytomas, cysts, myelolipomas. Malignant primary and metastatic tumors of the adrenal glands are characterized by irregular shape, large (over 5 cm) dimensions, heterogeneous structure, lack of clear separation from adjacent tissues and vascular structures, involvement of lymph nodes.