External symptoms are various transformations of body parts that occur under the influence of acute or chronic pathological processes. They belong to the group of objective symptoms determined by external examination. They include swelling, swelling, asymmetry, deformities, increase or decrease in the size of body parts.

External symptoms may be associated with allergic, endocrine, inflammatory, degenerative, surgical diseases, injuries. Finding out their genesis requires laboratory, imaging (Rg, ultrasound, MRI), electrophysiological studies, samples and tests. Therapeutic tactics correlate with causal pathology.

Symptoms of the appearance of patients are accompanied by a significant part of diseases of the skin, internal organs, musculoskeletal system, nervous system. Along with subjective sensations (pain, bursting, feeling of heaviness, burning, etc.), external signs determine the clinical picture of a particular pathology. Sometimes the external manifestations of the disease are so pathognomonic and “eloquent” that the diagnosis is almost beyond doubt.

  • Edema. Retention of tissue fluid more often leads to edema of the lower extremities, face, fingers in patients with chronic cardiac and venous insufficiency, lesions of the lymphatic system. Allergic swelling of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, larynx is possible.
  • Swelling. More often occurs as a result of inflammatory edema of one or another part of the body (swelling of the cheek with periostitis, neck with inflammation of the salivary glands or joints with arthritis). Another reason may be subcutaneous emphysema – the accumulation of gas in the subcutaneous tissue.
  • Asymmetry. It can be both a variant of the norm (for example, physiological asymmetry of the mammary glands) and a pathological manifestation (facial asymmetry in stroke, facial nerve paresis).
  • Deformation. External symptoms of such a plan often affect the osteoarticular system: for example, the joints of the extremities can be deformed with rheumatoid arthritis, the chest – with congenital heart defects, the spine – with scoliosis, etc. Deformation of the fingers by the type of drumsticks and nails in the form of watch glasses is a sure sign of chronic respiratory failure.
  • Changing the size of body parts. It can occur both in the direction of increase and decrease. Pathological enlargement of various parts of the body (lower jaw, ears, nose, lips, tongue, etc.) is noted with acromegaly, an increase in abdominal volume – with ascites, the size of the limbs – with lymphostasis. The opposite effect – a reduction in size – can manifest itself by stunting, shortening of limbs, microglossia, etc.
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes. Lymphadenopathy is a non-specific reaction to inflammatory, tumor, and autoimmune processes occurring in the body. At the same time, various groups of lymph nodes may increase – submandibular, cervical, axillary, inguinal, etc.

External symptoms should be considered in conjunction with subjective complaints, instrumental diagnostic data, dynamics of laboratory parameters. Only a comprehensive comprehensive assessment of all factors leads to the correct diagnosis and the choice of the right treatment tactics. External signs of the disease are an important signal to both the patient and the doctor about the problem in the body, which under no circumstances can remain without due attention.

deformity of the fingers

Deformity of the Fingers

Deformity of the fingers develops with traumatic injuries, degenerative and inflammatory diseases, malformations, hereditary pathologies. It is caused by a change in the length, thickness and configuration of the phalanges or their location relative to each other, a violation of the shape of the joints, fibrous growths, edema of soft tissues. The establishment of the…

toe deformities

Toe Deformities

Toe deformities is observed with flat feet, developmental abnormalities, some inflammatory, degenerative, endocrine, hereditary diseases. It is caused by edema, a change in the shape, length, location of the phalanges, rearrangement or proliferation of bones in the joint area. It can be one- or two-way, local or widespread. It is often combined with deformities of…

deformity of the big toe

Deformity of the Big Toe

Deformity of the big toe is observed in Hallux valgus, gout, arthrosis of the I metatarsophalangeal joint, rigid first finger, progressive ossifying dysplasia. In the latter case, it has an innate character, in the rest it is caused by a change in the angle between the metatarsal bone and the main phalanx, bone growths, edema…



Deformation leads to a change in the proportions, size, shape of body parts, which is accompanied by external defects and impaired body function. Skeletal deformities are most common: the skull, spine, chest, bones and joints of the extremities. Soft tissues can also deform. The causes of such changes are congenital malformations, injuries, degenerative changes, tumors.…

nipple retraction

Nipple Retraction

Nipple retraction may be a feature of breast development. In the pathological variant, it is most often detected with breast cancer, in some cases it is detected with other diseases. It can be combined with the appearance of a discharge from the nipple, pain syndrome, deformities of the breast. The cause of the symptom is…

joint asymmetry

Joint Asymmetry

Joint asymmetry is observed in traumatic injuries, developmental abnormalities, inflammatory and degenerative joint pathologies. Sometimes it occurs as a reaction of the body to diseases of other organs and systems. It can be caused by edema, fluid accumulation, changes in the configuration of solid structures, atrophy, fibrosis of the periarticular soft tissues. The cause of…

asymmetry of nasolabial folds

Asymmetry of Nasolabial Folds

Asymmetry of nasolabial folds is a sign of a number of neurological diseases, occurs in some dental pathologies, may be a consequence of aesthetic operations, cosmetic manipulations. The difference in the depth and angles of the folds varies from insignificant to pronounced. Pathology is often observed simultaneously with other types of facial asymmetry. The cause…

facial asymmetry

Facial Asymmetry

Facial asymmetry is more common in nervous diseases and dental pathologies. Less often, injuries, ophthalmological, otolaryngological, congenital diseases become the cause of the symptom. The disorder can be static or dynamic, develop as a result of innervation disorders, edema, excess or lack of tissues. Determination of the cause of asymmetry is carried out using data…



Asymmetry of body parts can be observed both in normal and pathological conditions. A small congenital or acquired disproportion that does not cause functional and aesthetic disorders is considered acceptable. At the same time, the sudden asymmetry of the face, limbs and body parts often indicates the development of serious diseases. Diagnosis is carried out…