Pulmonology (Latin pulmo, logos – “the doctrine of the lungs”) is a branch of medicine that studies diseases of the respiratory system: lungs, pleura, trachea and bronchi, clinical manifestations of diseases, specifics of diagnosis, methods of treatment and prevention. The respiratory system includes not only the airways, but also the central nervous system, the chest (sternocostal frame, intercostal muscles, diaphragm), the circulatory system in the lungs. Therefore, in a broad sense, the field of competence of pulmonology also includes pathology of other organs of the thoracic cavity, morphologically and functionally related to the respiratory organs.
The organs that pulmonology studies and treats, in addition to the lungs, include: vascular and nerve bundles of the lung root, lymph nodes, thymus gland, diaphragm, etc. The main function of the respiratory system is to provide gas exchange in the lungs.

Pulmonologists are engaged in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of lung and bronchial diseases. Surgical treatment of diseases of the lungs and other organs of the thoracic cavity is carried out by thoracic surgeons (from Greek. thorax – chest).

Pulmonology has close ties with such branches of medicine as cardiology, allergology, otolaryngology, intensive care and intensive care, oncology, transplantology.

Within the framework of pulmonology, an independent direction is distinguished – phthisiology, the field of study of which is the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. The problem of the prevalence of tuberculosis is one of the most urgent in modern medicine.

Pulmonology deals with the treatment of the following types of pathological processes:

  • chronic nonspecific (obstructive) lung diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, chronic pulmonary heart, bronchiectatic disease, chronic pneumonia, bronchial asthma);
  • destructive lung diseases (lung abscess, lung gangrene);
  • diseases of the pleural cavity (pleurisy, spontaneous pneumothorax, hemothorax, chylothorax);
  • traumatic chest injuries;
  • benign tumors of the lungs and pleura, lung and pleural cancers, mediastinal tumors;
  • acute inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system (tracheitis, pneumonia, bronchitis);
  • emergency conditions causing acute respiratory failure (respiratory distress syndrome (shock lung), pulmonary embolism, asthmatic status);
  • systemic diseases with disseminated processes in the lungs (cystic fibrosis, fibrosing alveolitis, sarcoidosis, etc.);
  • congenital and acquired malformations of the lungs, trachea and bronchi.

Many respiratory diseases have a severe and prolonged course, leading to serious health consequences, shorten the duration and reduce the quality of life of patients.

Pulmonology has acquired special significance in modern medical science. Bronchial and lung diseases occupy leading positions in modern society, their share in the total morbidity of the population varies from 41% to 53%.

The rapid deterioration of the environmental situation, an increase in the level of injuries accompanied by damage to the chest and chest cavity organs, the growth of oncological diseases of the respiratory system, stress factor, occupational hazards contribute to the steady growth and rejuvenation of lung diseases.

An appeal to a pulmonologist usually occurs when characteristic symptoms of lung diseases appear: dry or wet cough, shortness of breath at rest or during physical exertion, attacks of suffocation, chest pain, increased body temperature. Lung diseases are often accidental findings during X-ray examination.

It is possible to suspect a particular respiratory disease already on the basis of complaints and auscultative picture of the lungs. The necessary diagnostic studies to clarify the nature of lung pathology are chest radiography, data on the function of external respiration, bronchoscopy, bronchography, computed tomography of the lungs, angiopulmonography. Of the laboratory methods for diagnosing lung diseases, the study of sputum for cytology, microbial flora, and atypical cells is of the greatest importance.

Treatment of lung diseases, depending on their nature, can be both conservative and surgical. Conservative measures in the treatment of lung and bronchial diseases are aimed at diluting sputum, reducing its amount and facilitating evacuation from the bronchial tree, bronchial dilatation, relieving bronchial muscle spasm, removing the inflammatory process in the bronchopulmonary system, normalizing gas exchange in the lung tissue.

Surgical treatment of diseases of the lungs and other organs of the thoracic cavity in many cases is an emergency measure to eliminate dangerous, life-threatening conditions. Planned surgical treatment of lung diseases is carried out after a detailed examination and the impossibility of conservative treatment of the disease.

The simplest and most effective measures for the prevention of lung diseases are quitting smoking and undergoing an examination by a pulmonologist once a year.

The Medical Directory of Diseases on the website “Medic Journal” presents respiratory diseases in more detail.

pulmonary edema

Pulmonary Edema

Pulmonary edema is an acute pulmonary insufficiency associated with a massive release of transudate from the capillaries into the lung tissue, which leads to infiltration of the alveoli and a sharp violation of gas exchange in the lungs. Disease is manifested by shortness of breath at rest, a feeling of tightness in the chest, suffocation,…

acute tracheobronchitis

Acute Tracheobronchitis

Acute tracheobronchitis is an acute respiratory disease that occurs with an inflammatory lesion of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi. Disease is characterized by a strong cough (initially unproductive, then with the release of mucopurulent sputum), stinging pain behind the sternum, subfebrility, general weakness. Diagnostics includes physical examination, lung x-ray, clinical analysis of…

acute bronchitis

Acute Bronchitis

Acute bronchitis is a form of diffuse inflammation of the bronchial tree, characterized by increased bronchial secretion and impaired bronchial patency. Disease is characterized by a sharp onset, respiratory symptoms (runny nose, sore throat, paroxysmal cough with sputum, chest pain, shortness of breath, bronchospasm) and symptoms of intoxication (fever, headache, weakness). Physical examination data, lung…

acute bronchiolitis

Acute Bronchiolitis

Acute bronchiolitis is an inflammatory obstruction of the bronchi of small caliber (bronchioles), usually developing in young children against the background of a viral infection. The initial signs resemble acute respiratory viral infections, which are soon joined by the phenomena of bronchial obstruction (expiratory dyspnea, spastic cough, tachypnea, crepitating or wheezing wheezes, cyanosis of the…

acute pneumonia

Acute Pneumonia

Acute pneumonia is an acute inflammatory process in the parenchyma and interstitium of the lungs, in the etiology of which the infectious factor plays a decisive role. Disease is accompanied by chills, persistent fever, cough with mucopurulent sputum, malaise, headache, shortness of breath and tachycardia. Pneumonia is diagnosed according to the clinical and radiological picture,…

acute respiratory failure

Acute Respiratory Failure

Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a pathological syndrome characterized by a sharp decrease in the level of blood oxygenation. It refers to life-threatening, critical conditions that can lead to death. Early signs of disease are: tachypnea, suffocation, feeling of lack of air, agitation, cyanosis. As hypoxia progresses, a violation of consciousness develops, convulsions, hypoxic coma.…

tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica

Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica

Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica is a condition in which areas of calcification and ossification protrude into the lumen of the respiratory tract in the submucosal layer of the trachea and bronchi. It may manifest as shortness of breath, cough, hemoptysis. Creates favorable conditions for the development of inflammatory processes in the lower respiratory tract. It is diagnosed…

obstructive bronchitis

Obstructive Bronchitis

Obstructive bronchitis is a diffuse inflammation of the bronchi of small and medium caliber, occurring with a sharp bronchial spasm and progressive violation of pulmonary ventilation. Disease is manifested by coughing with sputum, expiratory shortness of breath, wheezing, respiratory failure. The diagnosis is based on auscultative, radiological data, the results of the study of the…

bronchiolitis obliterans

Bronchiolitis Obliterans

Bronchiolitis obliterans is a diffuse lesion of bronchioles, leading to partial or complete obliteration of their lumen and the development of respiratory failure. Disease is manifested by weakness, fever, dry obsessive cough and increasing shortness of breath, distant wheezing, in the late period – cyanosis and “puffing” breathing. Diagnostics includes X-ray and CT of the…

non-small cell lung cancer

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Non-small cell lung cancer is a group of morphologically similar malignant neoplasms, including glandular, large cell and squamous cell lung cancer. Typical complaints of patients with persistent cough, shortness of breath, hemoptysis, hoarseness of voice, chest pain. Of the nonspecific symptoms, fever, weight loss, weakness are bothering. Pathology is diagnosed according to radiography/CT of the…