Dentistry is a medical discipline that studies the organs of the oral cavity, their physiological and pathological conditions, as well as deals with the prevention and treatment of diseases of these organs. In the field of dentistry, there are not only diseases of the teeth, but also the entire dental system, as well as the oral mucosa. Along with treatment, modern dentistry pays great attention to the aesthetic side of the issue, striving to create a “perfect smile” for each patient. Dentists attach particular importance to proper oral care as the most effective method of preventing dental diseases.
Based on the methods of treatment, there are specialized areas in dentistry:

  • therapeutic dentistry (treatment of diseases of the enamel and canals of teeth)
  • surgical dentistry (surgical treatment of diseases of the oral cavity)
  • orthopedic dentistry (prosthetics of teeth)
  • orthodontics (bite correction)
  • paradontology (treatment of gum and periodontal diseases – the tissues surrounding the tooth)
pediatric dentistry (development of methods for the treatment of dental diseases, taking into account the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children in different periods of development).

In recent years, new directions have been widely developed in dentistry: implantology and aesthetic dentistry.

Dentistry covers a wide range of diseases. She is engaged in treatment:

  • inflammatory processes of the oral mucosa (stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, cheilitis)
  • dental diseases (caries, periodontitis, periodontal disease, pericoronitis, pulpitis, enamel hypoplasia, tartar)
  • pathological processes of the maxillofacial region (maxillary cysts, parotid phlegmons and abscesses, defects of dentition)
  • congenital malformations of the facial region (cleft palate and lip)
  • traumatic damage to teeth (dislocation or fracture of the tooth), jaws, tongue, lips
diseases of the salivary glands, etc.

Oral infections serve as a focus for the spread of pathogens throughout the body. According to the state of the oral cavity, it is possible to judge the state of human health as a whole. According to the Dental Association, 87% of Americans need oral sanitation, which, depending on the indications, includes caries treatment and filling of defects, removal of plaque, stone, roots and teeth, orthodontic and orthopedic treatment.

The most important indicator of the health of the oral cavity and the body as a whole is the condition of the teeth. Their formation occurs during the period of intrauterine development, the eruption of baby teeth – about six months, permanent – in 6-8 years. Permanent teeth that erupted in childhood are given to a person for the rest of his life, so they require special care and attention at all stages of life.

Today dentistry offers painless, safe and highly effective treatment of various diseases of the oral cavity. In the treatment of teeth, modern filling materials are used, as well as tooth-preserving techniques.

They try to resort to tooth extraction as a last resort when it is necessary to eliminate the source of infection in the oral cavity or when it is impossible to save and restore the tooth.

If, nevertheless, the tooth could not be preserved, then high-strength and aesthetic dental prosthetic materials will allow you to accurately recreate the architecture of the tooth and the color of the tooth enamel.

Nowadays, healthy teeth and a beautiful smile are an integral attribute of a person’s well-being and success in society. Aesthetic dentistry is working on creating a perfect “Hollywood” smile. The scope of activity of this area of dentistry includes aesthetic restoration of teeth, their whitening, improvement of shape, size – everything that makes a smile irresistible and flawless.

Today dentistry is one of the most dynamically developing medical sciences: new high-tech techniques and materials appear every year. However, maintaining oral health depends not only on the dentist and modern technologies. In many ways, it is determined by the lifestyle of the patient himself. Restriction of sweets, exclusion of bad habits, high-quality hygiene of teeth and gums, preventive dental examinations will allow you to keep your teeth beautiful and healthy for many years.

The medical directory of diseases on the website “Medic Journal” will give you the opportunity to learn as much as possible about how to resist the threat of tooth loss and what to do if this trouble has already happened.

Ulcerative Stomatitis

Ulcerative stomatitis is an inflammatory disease of the oral cavity, accompanied by focal destruction of the mucous membrane. Pathology is manifested by edema and hyperemia of the oral mucosa, against which single or multiple bleeding and painful ulcers covered with plaque are formed. The ulcerative process is accompanied by halitosis, fever, regional lymphadenitis. Diagnosis includes…

Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is an inflammatory lesion of the gum tissue, accompanied by erosion, ulceration and necrosis of the gingival margin. The course of disease is characterized by sharp pain that makes it difficult to eat; bad breath; hyperemia, swelling and bleeding of the gums with the formation of ulcers; an increase in the…

Dental Erosion

Dental erosion is a type of non–carious lesion characterized by the formation of enamel and dentin defects on the vestibular surface of the teeth. Areas of dental erosion are localized symmetrically: on incisors, canines, premolars; their formation leads to a change in the color of enamel, hyperesthesia of teeth, cosmetic defect. Pathology is detected by…

Exfoliative Cheilitis

Exfoliative cheilitis is an inflammatory disease accompanied by a lesion of the red border of the lips. With dry exfoliative cheilitis, scales form on the lips, which are tightly soldered to the underlying tissue in the center, and on the periphery, on the contrary, are raised. At the same time, patients indicate a feeling of…

Black Hairy Tongue

Black hairy tongue is an acquired benign condition characterized by the appearance of hypertrophied and elongated filamentous papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Patients complain of dryness and a change in the appearance of the tongue. With significant hyperplasia of the filamentous papillae, there is a feeling of a foreign body in the…

Chronic Sialadenitis

Chronic sialadenitis is a sluggish inflammation of the salivary gland, which is characterized by alternating periods of exacerbations and remissions. There are no complaints during the latent phase of chronic sialadenitis. During the manifest stage, a painless swelling appears in the projection of the affected gland, salivation decreases, a feeling of heaviness and soreness periodically…

Chronic Periodontitis

Chronic periodontitis is a long–term, infection-induced pathological process affecting all structures of the periodontal and leading to the destruction of its tissues and resorption of the alveoli. Disease is accompanied by itching and bleeding of the gums, the presence of supra- and subgingival dental deposits and periodontal pockets, halitosis, mobility and displacement of teeth, endogenous…


Cheilitis is an inflammatory process that affects the red border, the mucous membrane and the skin of the lips. It is manifested by swelling, redness, peeling of the lips, the appearance of bleeding ulcers, purulent crusts, burning and pain when opening the mouth and eating. Diagnosis is based on an external examination, it is possible…


Fluorosis is a lesion of tooth enamel associated with constant and prolonged ingestion of excessive amounts of fluoride. Pathology can be endemic and professional in nature. It is manifested by the appearance of whitish, and then yellow spots or stripes on the teeth, erosive or destructive changes in the enamel. In severe cases, it is…

Oral Fibroma

Oral fibroma is a benign neoplasm consisting of fibers of mature connective tissue. It is a clearly delimited rounded nodule on a leg or a wide base, covered with unchanged mucosa. It is characterized by slow exophytic growth. Pathology can be located on the inner surface of the cheeks, the mucous membrane of the lips,…