Cystoscopy male is an endoscopic examination that allows an examination of the mucous membrane of the bladder by inserting a cystoscope into its cavity. The procedure makes it possible to diagnose inflammatory and degenerative processes, to identify congenital anomalies, traumatic damage to the walls of the organ, the formation of neoplasms in its cavity. Cystoscopy refers to minimally invasive techniques and is used not only for diagnostic, but also for therapeutic purposes. It can be used as an independent procedure or in combination with urethroscopy – examination of the mucous membrane of the urethra. The study is performed with the introduction of an antiseptic solution into the organ cavity, certain preparation is required before the procedure.
Cystoscopy male and women began to be used at the beginning of the XIX century. The Italian doctor Bozzini was able to examine the urinary tract for the first time with an optical device in 1805. Since then, scientists and doctors from different countries have continued to develop this idea. In 1877, the German urologist Nitze proposed to connect an optical system with light devices. As a result, a tube equipped with a light bulb turned out. Such a device was injected into the bladder of patients, the organ was filled with sterile fluid and its condition was assessed.
Over time, the cystoscope has undergone many modifications in order to improve functionality and improve data accuracy. Modern devices allow you to get maximum information about the state of the bladder and perform some medical procedures. In comparison with X-ray examination and ultrasound, cystoscopy is a more informative diagnostic method. An additional advantage of such a procedure is the possibility of medical interventions immediately after the detection of pathology (for example, removal of polyps, tumors, stones).
Diagnosis of bladder diseases by cystoscopy can be carried out using a rigid and flexible cystoscope. Rigid cystoscopy male is a more informative way, it makes it possible to carefully examine the mucous membrane of the organ. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant discomfort, so anesthesia is offered to patients. Local or spinal anesthesia can be used. With therapeutic cystoscopy, general anesthesia is more often used in men. Flexible cystoscopy is less painful, so it does not always involve anesthesia. However, the data received will also be less clear.
This procedure is widely used in urology, as it allows you to accurately diagnose existing diseases, as well as to treat certain pathologies. Less often, manipulation is used in oncology in case of detection of bladder tumors.
This manipulation is widely used in urological practice in order to detect diseases of the bladder. Cystoscopy male is indicated for chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the organ, which is accompanied by frequent exacerbations, in case of urinary incontinence, with suspected urolithiasis. In addition, the study is used for urinary retention, when it is not possible to determine the cause of such a condition using other methods. Suspicion of the development of cystitis of non-infectious origin is also considered an indication for an endoscopic examination of the bladder. Cystoscopy male is prescribed with increased activity of the organ, in case of detection of atypical elements in the urine analysis.
The diagnostic procedure is also used if the patient has complaints of prolonged pain in the lower abdomen and pelvic area, the presence of blood in the urine. Cystoscopy male is used in combination with ultrasound and CT in case of suspected development of oncological organ damage in order to clarify the data obtained with the help of other studies. Such manipulation is also widely used for therapeutic purposes. Urologists do not do without cystoscopy if it is necessary to stop bleeding, remove bladder stones, as well as neoplasms in the organ cavity. The procedure is no less effective when dissecting obstructions, placing ureteral catheters, and performing a pinch biopsy. Also, cystoscopy male is performed to dissect strictures – narrowing of the lumen of the mouth of the ureter.
Despite the high importance of manipulation in urology, there are conditions in which it cannot be carried out. It is contraindicated to use cystoscopy male with acute inflammatory processes that spread to the walls of the bladder, urethra, prostate, testicles. It is forbidden to carry out endoscopic examination for any infections accompanied by fever and intoxication of the body. Manipulation is not performed with narrowing of the urethral lumen, the presence of bleeding of unclear etiology in the patient. Contraindications to cystoscopy male are also fresh bladder injuries.
Manipulation is carried out only by appointment of a urologist. In order to get maximum information during the study, the patient needs to follow some rules of preparation. 2-3 days before cystoscopy, a man must pass a general and biochemical examination of urine and blood, as well as a blood test to determine the ability to coagulate. Doctors recommend to exclude the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulants, antispasmodics, insulin a few days before the planned procedure. Sometimes, on the eve of cystoscopy, a one-time antibiotic is prescribed in order to prevent the development of the infectious process. If the procedure is performed under general anesthesia, dinner should be light, you can not eat in the morning. Immediately before a cystoscopy, a man should perform a toilet of the external genitourinary organs, as well as remove the hair in the genital area.
Methodology of conducting
To conduct the study, the patient must take off his clothes and sit in a special chair, bending his lower limbs at the knees and hip joints. Next, the external genitourinary organs are treated with an anesthetic or anesthetic drugs are administered. After that, the specialist lubricates the cystoscope tube with glycerin and proceeds to inject it into the bladder. Having reached the cavity of the organ, the doctor removes the remaining urine and fills the bladder with a solution of furacilin. The volume of the injected fluid is usually 200 ml, while the patient feels the urge to urinate. The specialist examines the mucous membrane, identifies possible congenital anomalies and acquired pathological processes, performs interventions to eliminate pathology during therapeutic cystoscopy.
After examining the condition of the organ, the cystoscope is removed. When using local anesthesia after diagnostic cystoscopy, a man can immediately go home. General anesthesia requires a hospital stay for several hours. The duration of diagnostic manipulation is up to 10 minutes. Therapeutic cystoscopy male takes approximately 45-60 minutes, depending on the procedures performed. The urologist is engaged in decoding the received data. Normally, with cystoscopy male, it is possible to determine the mucous membrane of the bladder of a light pink color without obvious signs of inflammation. There should be no infiltrates, neoplasms, strictures, stones, injuries.
After a cystoscopy, a man may have a slight discharge of blood in the urine, itching and burning in the urethra may be felt. Such symptoms are a variant of the norm and usually go away after 1-2 days.