Yellow vaginal discharge is the discharge from the vagina of a liquid or thick yellow secretion, more often with an unpleasant odor. Pathological white spots can be accompanied by soreness during urination and sexual intercourse, discomfort and itching in the vagina. Yellow discharge occurs as a result of natural hormonal fluctuations, and with various infectious or inflammatory lesions of the genitals. To determine the cause of the whites, a comprehensive gynecological examination, laboratory tests, ultrasound of the pelvic organs are carried out. Drug therapy is prescribed only after verification of the diagnosis.
Causes of yellow vaginal discharge
A small amount of light yellow secretion is formed a few days before menstruation. These secretions are odorless and are not accompanied by any other uncomfortable sensations in the genital area. Their appearance is associated with natural hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle. Similar thick yellow whites are observed in pregnant women under the influence of progesterone. If a woman has a vaginal discharge with a fetid odor, the color and amount of discharge have changed, you should seek medical help to find out the cause.
- Trichomoniasis. Liquid yellow foamy discharge with a putrid odor is characteristic of vaginal trichomoniasis. Patients complain of copious discharge from the vagina, which irritates the skin of the external genitals, causes a rash and itching. Sometimes streaks of blood are visible in the pathological secret.
- Chlamydia. Yellowish mucopurulent whites with a specific odor, which are characterized by a thick consistency, are typical for another infectious cause — chlamydia. Vaginal discharge is combined with soreness during urination, in some cases — discomfort during sexual intercourse.
Inflammation of the genitals
Yellow discharge of a thick consistency without a special smell occurs when the ovaries and fallopian tubes are affected. The discharge is scanty, often appears after sexual intercourse, hygiene procedures. Other causes also affect the increase in the volume of secretions: chronic stress, concomitant diseases, hypothermia. Vaginal discharge occurs against the background of pulling pains in the lower abdomen and in the groin area, sometimes the temperature rises to subfebrile figures. Most often yellow whites provoke:
- Pathology of appendages: salpingitis, oophoritis, adnexitis.
- Inflammation of the vagina: colpitis (vaginitis), vulvitis.
- Defeat of the cervical mucosa: endocervicitis.
The pathological channel that communicates the bladder cavity with the uterus is formed during injuries or iatrogenic injuries. At the same time, women note the periodic outflow from the vagina of a liquid discharge of intense yellow color with a pungent odor. In severe cases, discharge with an admixture of urine is observed constantly, so patients are forced to use urological pads. Due to the constant maceration of the skin of the perineum, severe itching and burning are felt, dull pains in the lower abdomen are characteristic. Similar symptoms develop with vesicovaginal fistulas.
The gynecologist is engaged in identifying the causes that caused the yellow discharge from the vagina. A comprehensive examination with the use of physical and instrumental techniques is shown, various laboratory tests are also performed. The diagnostic search is aimed at verifying the underlying disease that caused the appearance of a pathological vaginal discharge with a noticeably unpleasant odor. The following types of surveys are the most informative:
- Gynecological examination. This is the first and main method of diagnosing the cause of discharge, which includes an assessment of the condition of the external genitals, a detailed examination in the mirrors of the vagina and cervix. The study helps to detect inflammatory changes, destructive processes. At the end of the examination, a vaginal secret is taken to determine the microflora.
- Examination of smears. As a screening method, bacterioscopy of smears of the separated after coloring with special dyes is used. This study has a low specificity (60%), so the analysis is supplemented by culture seeding of secretions on nutrient media.
- Methods of instrumental visualization. To clarify the cause of discharge with an unpleasant or fetid odor, a standard ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs is performed, as well as a more informative transvaginal ultrasound. For the purpose of detailed visualization of the cervix, a colposcopy, a Schiller test is performed.
A clinical and biochemical blood test is necessarily carried out, the female hormonal profile is determined. It is possible to confirm the infectious etiology of yellow secretions with a stench with the help of serological reactions (ELISA, RNGA). With a possible vesicopubine fistula, a cystoscopy is necessary.
Help before diagnosis
Scanty creamy-yellow vaginal discharge without odor, which are formed against the background of well-being, do not require therapeutic measures. If the discharge is copious, foamy, accompanied by a fetid odor or perineal discomfort, this indicates the development of the disease. In such a situation, it is necessary to visit a specialist to identify the cause of the symptom and select treatment. Before diagnosis, regular hygienic baths with herbal decoctions (oak bark, chamomile) and antiseptic solutions are recommended.
With pathological yellow discharge from the vagina, etiotropic drug treatment is indicated. To increase the likelihood of a full recovery, therapy is carried out simultaneously to both sexual partners. For the entire period of treatment, a woman should refrain from sexual contact. The following groups of medicines are most often used:
- Antibacterial drugs. For the eradication of chlamydia, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, tetracycline antibiotics are used, which effectively act on intracellular microorganisms. With trichomoniasis, antiprotozoal drugs are taken.
- Immunomodulators. These drugs do not directly affect the causes that provoked yellow discharge, but they increase local and general immunity, stimulate the activity of the lymphocytic system. Due to this, the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms is accelerated.
- Antihistamines. H1-histamine receptor blockers significantly reduce the production of endogenous allergens and inflammatory cytokines. They are prescribed to cope with the accompanying unpleasant symptoms — itching and discomfort in the genital area.
- Probiotics. The drugs are used as auxiliary therapy for the prevention of dysbiosis and other consequences of taking antibiotics. To normalize the vaginal microflora, vaginal suppositories with lactobacilli are recommended.
Yellow vaginal discharge stops quickly if the treatment regimen prescribed by the gynecologist is followed. Premature rejection of basic antimicrobial therapy contributes to the chronization of the process and the formation of antibiotic-resistant forms of microorganisms. After healing, it is important to comply with the requirements of intimate hygiene and use condoms in sexual relations with unfamiliar partners.
Surgical interventions are usually performed in cases where yellow vaginal discharge is caused by the presence of urethro-vaginal, utero-bladder and other pathological messages between the organs of the genital and urinary systems. To date, a wide range of operations has been proposed – from suturing the fistula opening and excision of the fistula to methods of reconstructive plastic surgery. The choice of the method of eliminating the defect is determined by its scale of lesion and the patient’s condition.