Chest x-ray is an radiography examination, the purpose of which is to assess the condition of bone structures, to identify pathological processes in the pleural cavity and lung tissue. It is prescribed for suspected hemo- or pneumothorax with multiple rib fractures and combined trauma. It is performed to control the condition of the lungs during treatment. It is carried out in one (overview) or two projections. A survey study allows you to determine the location of fractures, identify the focus of inflammation, the level of fluid or gas. The second projection makes it possible to clarify the nature of fractures, to determine the localization of a limited hemo- or pneumothorax in the presence of pleural adhesions.
Chest X-ray allows you to determine the nature of the disease and the stage of its development. With the help of such a diagnostic method, it is possible to determine the presence of occupational diseases, various kinds of tumors, tuberculosis, pneumonia. Radiography can be used to determine diseases of the spine and lymph nodes. With the help of X-rays, various heart defects, pericardial diseases can be detected.
Chest X-ray and other organs of the thoracic cavity may be prescribed when a number of symptoms indicate developing diseases. As a rule, the study is assigned to patients who complain of severe shortness of breath, chest pain or cough.
- Accumulation of fluid or air in the pleural cavity. The accumulation of air is characterized by the protrusion of the diseased side, the intercostal spaces are smoothed out, and when breathing, the diseased side “lags behind” the healthy side – an asymmetry is observed. This condition can be combined with the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. It is often a consequence of injury. Performing chest X-ray in such a situation allows you to save the patient’s life.
- Clarification of the localization of foreign bodies in the trachea or bronchi. This condition is dangerous with the development of lightning-fast asphyxia, as well as other severe complications. Therefore, it is necessary to find out how to undergo a lung X-ray in such a situation, how often it can be done and what will become known after the diagnosis. Identification of the position of a foreign body, its size allows you to plan its removal surgically or otherwise
- Pleural adhesions or mooring. Adhesions are overgrown connective cords, the location of which is usually located between the serous membranes in the pleural cavity. Such adhesions can also be called pleurodiaphragmatic, they are total, occupying all pleural sections, or single, when pleural leaves are fused. Chest X-ray is necessary when a patient complains of chest pain, shortness of breath, temperature.
- Determination of pathologies of the diaphragm. With the help of X-rays, all kinds of tumors, diaphragmatitis or hernias can be detected. Diaphragmatic dystopias, dyskinesia and dystonia, as well as injuries are not uncommon.
- Examination of mediastinal organs. Often an X-ray is prescribed in a situation where it is necessary to determine the localization of the formation in the thoracic cavity. This is more appropriate for the study of the anterior mediastinum. In the study, this cavity is divided into a retro-sternal section (anterior) and a central (posterior) section. Chest radiography allows you to examine the cavity and identify the presence of pathological processes.
Diseases diagnosed by lung X-ray
It is necessary to find out what the chest X-ray shows if there is a suspicion of lung disease. A large number of diseases occur without symptoms at all, so the usual examination and questioning of the patient does not provide the necessary amount of information. With the help of an X-ray, it will be possible to examine all the structures of the lungs and identify the cause of the pathology, after which the doctor will be able to prescribe treatment.
- Pneumonia. It is an inflammatory disease that is characterized by significant violations of the respiratory process. The disease requires rapid diagnosis and timely treatment. If you do not know how often an adult can do chest x-ray in such a situation, it is worth finding out that no more than once a year.
- Congestive heart failure. Insufficiency is a complex failure in hemodynamics. The cause of it is a violation of the functions of the heart, which are provoked by overwork of the cardiomyocyte, as well as defects that are from birth or acquired with age. Violation of such a plan can be detected by chest X-ray.
- Pneumothorax. Such a deviation can be traumatic and spontaneous, as well as artificial. If an artificial type of disease is a consequence of treatment, then traumatic and spontaneous need to be treated urgently. An overview radiography of the lungs allows you to diagnose the disease and assess its severity.
- Pleural effusion. It is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. The reason for the appearance of effusion allows you to determine its type – exudate or transudate. As a rule, it is not an independent disease, but a complication. It can appear due to pneumonia, congestive heart failure, tuberculosis, pulmonary embolism, as well as HIV infection and oncology. Lung radiography is performed in an upright position in straight and lateral projections.
- Pneumoperitoneum. This pathology means filling the abdominal cavity with gas. To find out what the lung X-ray shows is necessary in order to identify the cause of the disease and prescribe treatment adequate to the patient’s current condition. The disease is extremely serious, untimely treatment can become a threat to life, cause various complications.
- Emphysema of the lungs. It is characterized by a chronic course and a disorder of normal gas exchange in the lungs. Occurs due to overextension of the alveoli and their excessive air filling. The cause of emphysema is chronic bronchitis, but other lung diseases or heredity can also provoke it. To understand what provoked the disease, you need to do a chest X-ray.
Methodology of conducting
The standard study is carried out in a direct projection. Radiography is carried out so that the ribs, lungs, mediastinal organs and, partially, the bones of the shoulder girdle are visible on the image. The study is performed in a standing, sitting or lying position (depending on the patient’s condition). At the time of shooting, the patient is asked to inhale shallowly and hold his breath. During the procedure, the patient should not strain himself, since this can cause distortions in the relative position of organs in the radiograph.