Light dizziness can occur under the influence of physiological factors: a strict diet, excessive exercise, lack of sleep. It is detected during pregnancy and menopause, with prolonged use of certain medications, VVD, cervical osteochondrosis, anemia, hypotension, hypothyroidism, atherosclerosis, neurotic disorders. Develops during acute infections. The cause is determined based on survey data, external examination, results of visualization techniques and laboratory tests. Treatment includes correction of diet and daily routine, physiotherapy, drug therapy. Operations are rarely shown.
Light dizziness is manifested by a feeling of instability, spatial orientation disorders, a sense of rotation or displacement of surrounding objects or the patient’s body. Symptoms are expressed slightly. As a rule, it has a non-systemic character. It persists for a long time. It is often combined with weakness, palpitations, increased sweating.
Causes of light dizziness
Due to a lack of nutrients and a decrease in glucose levels, light, wave-like dizziness can be observed in fans of strict diets. In the spring months, the condition often occurs in women who are trying to lose weight quickly by the summer through dietary restrictions and active physical education. Fatigue of the body after winter and unusual physical exertion can provoke dizziness even with moderate dietary restrictions.
Mild dizziness is often detected in people suffering from chronic fatigue (physical, emotional, intellectual). During the pre-session period and during the session, the symptom sometimes occurs in students. Unpleasant sensations can accompany the period of adaptation to a new job with unusual loads or burnout with constant overwork, prolonged absence of vacation.
Another cause of this disorder is considered to be lack of sleep. The symptom is detected in people with insomnia and shift work at night, it is found in women who are on maternity leave to care for a child. Sometimes constant dizziness is provoked by hypoxia caused by insufficient ventilation of domestic and industrial premises.
Light dizziness is considered a frequent companion of pregnancy. It develops due to changes in the level of hormones in the blood, insufficient adaptation of the body to new conditions, redistribution of blood, increased tone of the vagus nerve. Another possible cause of the symptom in women is the menopause period. Dizziness appears against the background of vegetative-vascular and psychoemotional disorders, instability of blood pressure.
A diverse and rather variable symptomatology is characteristic. Constant mild dizziness can be combined with short-term intense ones. They are supplemented by other paroxysmal conditions: fainting, PA. Common manifestations of VVD are tachycardia, a feeling of lack of air, chilliness or, on the contrary, a feeling of heat, weakness, fatigue, headaches, sleep disorders.
Vertigo in cervical osteochondrosis is associated with compression of the vertebral artery, which provides blood circulation in the vertebral-basilar basin. With minor disorders caused by bone growths, reactive inflammation and compensatory muscle tension, the symptom is weak, constant. With sharp turns of the head, during the period of exacerbation, dizziness may increase.
Mild dizziness is characteristic of mild or moderate iron deficiency anemia. It is complemented by pallor and dryness of the skin, drowsiness, decreased performance, tinnitus, shortness of breath, palpitations during physical exertion, high sensitivity to cold. Fainting is possible. Similar symptoms during the recovery period are observed in patients with posthemorrhagic anemia.
Occurs after injuries, against the background of neurocirculatory dystonia, chronic somatic diseases, hypovitaminosis. Accompanied by drowsiness, weakness, apathy, fatigue, tachycardia, hyperhidrosis, memory impairment, emotional instability. With a prolonged course of arterial hypotension, the menstrual cycle is disrupted in women, and potency decreases in men. Light dizziness can be supplemented by pre-fainting states when changing the position of the body (orthostatic hypotension).
Mild dizziness in hypothyroidism is caused by a decrease in blood pressure, combined with signs of slowing down of other physiological and psychological processes: weakness, drowsiness, lethargy, bradycardia, weight gain, fluid retention in tissues with the development of characteristic edema.
In patients with diabetes mellitus, along with dizziness, constant thirst, dry mouth, increased urination, increased urine output, increased appetite, delayed wound healing, frequent pustular infections are detected. With the development of hypoglycemia due to an overdose of insulin, eating disorders or alcohol intake, dizziness quickly increases, is replaced by fainting states, coma.
Periodic weak dizziness occurs already at the initial stage of the disease. With the progression of atherosclerosis, they become permanent. There are headaches, noise in the head, memory impairment, psychoemotional disorders. Possible anxiety, suspiciousness, depressive disorders, deterioration of vision and hearing, blurred speech.
Mild dizziness often accompanies acute infectious diseases: acute respiratory viral infections, food poisoning, sore throat, coronavirus infection, etc. The symptom occurs against the background of intoxication, general hyperthermia, weakness, bruising, muscle pain. With respiratory infections, catarrhal phenomena are observed, with intestinal – nausea, vomiting, stool disorders.
Prolonged light dizziness is most characteristic of neurasthenia, but it can also be observed in other disorders of the neurotic spectrum, especially anxiety and dissociative disorders. Dizziness is detected within the framework of a vegetative symptom complex, which also includes tachycardia, fluctuations in blood pressure, a feeling of lack of air, muscle twitching, dyspeptic disorders. Affective disorders include melancholy, sadness, hopelessness, and a reduced mood background.
Light dizziness is a side effect of some medications or occurs due to prolonged use. The symptom can be provoked by the following drugs:
- Sedatives: tranquilizers, barbiturates.
- Depressing vestibular function: antihistamines and anticholinergics, benzodiazepines.
- Ototoxic: aminoglycosides, NSAIDs.
- Causing hypotension: diuretics, vasodilators, adrenoblockers, calcium channel blockers, tricyclic antidepressants.
- Provoking hypoglycemia: antidiabetic, monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
The therapist is responsible for determining the cause of light dizziness. If necessary, psychiatrists, neurologists, and endocrinologists are involved in the examination. During the survey, the specialist determines the time of occurrence of the symptom and the accompanying circumstances. Identifies living conditions, features of the daily routine and other factors that can provoke physiological disorders. Determines the presence of diagnosed somatic pathologies.
During the examination, the doctor pays attention to external changes that may indicate the nature of the disease that causes dizziness, for example, pallor and dryness of the skin with anemia or swelling with hypothyroidism. The examination plan is drawn up taking into account the alleged cause of the symptom, may include:
- Visualization techniques. In osteochondrosis, radiography and CT of the cervical spine are informative. Patients with atherosclerosis are shown ultrasound or MRI of the cerebral vessels. Sonography helps to assess the condition of the thyroid gland in patients with hypothyroidism. In addition, ultrasound and radiographic diagnostic methods are used to exclude other pathologies in VVD and arterial hypotension.
- Electrophysiological studies. ECG is a screening diagnostic method that allows detecting arrhythmias, hypokalemia, ischemia and organic changes in the myocardium. It is carried out as part of a differential diagnosis to determine the causes of secondary hypotension. EEG is included in the basic examination program for vertigo, makes it possible to detect disorders of the central nervous system.
- Laboratory tests. Anemia is confirmed by the results of a clinical blood test. In diabetes mellitus, the glucose level is determined. To assess the severity of hypothyroidism, a study on thyroid hormones is prescribed. To detect viruses that cause acute infections, PCR and ELISA are performed.
Light dizziness caused by physiological factors is eliminated by normalizing nutrition, daily routine, reducing the level of load, ensuring sufficient ventilation in the premises. To normalize the condition of women during menopause, hormone replacement therapy is carried out, antidepressants are prescribed.
In case of dizziness provoked by taking medications, dose adjustment, cancellation or replacement of the drug is carried out. Therapeutic tactics in other pathologies are determined by the nature of the disease:
- VVD. The most important role is played by non-drug measures: correction of the work and rest regime, elimination of inactivity and excessive emotional influences, psychotherapy, physiotherapy. With insufficient effectiveness, tranquilizers, antidepressants, nootropics, sedatives are used.
- Cerebral atherosclerosis. A special diet, regular movement, exclusion of smoking and alcohol consumption are necessary. Medication correction of hyperlipidemia is carried out. Antiplatelet agents, vascular agents, B vitamins, nootropics are used.
- Arterial hypotension. Treatment of the underlying disease is required. Therapeutic and wellness activities include massage, hydrotherapy, acupuncture, aromatherapy, physical therapy. Plant adaptogens, cerebroprotectors, antioxidants, and antidepressants are effective.
- Cervical osteochondrosis. During periods of exacerbations, the wearing of a Trench collar is shown. As part of drug therapy, NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, painkillers are used.
- Endocrine diseases. Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, with mild dizziness, need correction of diet, insulin therapy regimens or treatment with hypoglycemic drugs. Hypothyroidism requires replacement therapy with levothyroxine.
With iron deficiency anemia, high-grade nutrition with an increased content of heme iron, taking iron-containing drugs are recommended. Patients with neurotic disorders undergo psychotherapy, prescribe antidepressants and tranquilizers.
Surgical treatment for mild dizziness is rarely required. Patients with atherosclerosis with severe occlusion of the carotid arteries, repeated TIA are shown carotid endarterectomy or the formation of vascular shunts. In patients with osteochondrosis, surgical interventions are recommended for severe compression of the spinal cord, including decompression of the spinal canal, classical and minimally invasive methods of disc herniation removal, stabilization of the spinal segment.