Chromhidrosis is the staining of sweat gland secretions in red, yellow, blue, green and other colors. Disease can be caused by the synthesis of a specific pigment in the apocrine glands, the release of chemicals that have entered the body with sweat, or the formation of coloring substances as a result of the vital activity of microorganisms living on the surface of the skin. Treatment depends on its genesis and may consist in removing sweat glands, eliminating contact with substances that lead to sweat staining, and careful skin hygiene.
Chromhidrosis is one of the rare types of diseases of the sweat glands. Most often it occurs along with hyperhidrosis — increased sweating. In some cases, sweat staining is observed against the background of osmidrosis — sweating with an unpleasant odor caused by increased reproduction of skin bacteria with insufficient hygienic care.
Clinical dermatology refers to true chromhidrosis cases of sweat staining, which are caused by the synthesis and release of a specific pigment by apocrine sweat glands — lipofuxin. In this case, the blue, yellow or black color of sweat may be noted. In other cases, the cause of chromhidrosis is the professional activity of patients associated with copper, cobalt, pyrocatechins and some other chemicals.
The occurrence of chromhidrosis may be due to excessive reproduction of bacteria or fungal flora, which occurs with insufficient hygiene of body areas with increased sweating. As a result of their vital activity, microorganisms located on the skin produce various substances, including chromogen, which, upon contact with air, oxidizes, staining sweat in red, blue, black, yellow, less often green.
As a rule, patients consult a dermatologist with complaints about the staining of underwear and clothing in places where they come into contact with the skin. These are mainly the armpits, the genital area and the anus. The main diagnostic task in this case is to establish the cause of chromhidrosis. The presence of the pigment lipofuxin in sweat is revealed by the characteristic glow during luminescent diagnostics. To determine the composition and amount of microflora on the surface of the skin, a back-seeding of scraping and a study for fungi is carried out.
Chromhidrosis therapy should be carried out in accordance with its cause. So, when the disease is associated with occupational hazards, it is enough to eliminate contact with the substance that caused chromhidrosis. With increased reproduction of fungal or bacterial flora, frequent washing with soap is necessary, especially careful in places of skin folds and in areas of skin with a large accumulation of apocrine glands.
In the treatment of concomitant hyperhidrosis, antiperspirants, medicinal electrophoresis, hydrotherapy are used. Botox injections have a pronounced but temporary effect, blocking the innervation of sweat glands and, accordingly, reducing their functional activity.
If these methods are ineffective, sympathectomy may be performed. Chromhidrosis associated with the production of lipofuxin is an indication for laser or ultrasound destruction of sweat glands, their surgical removal by liposuction, endoscopic curettage or surgical excision. A complication of such treatment methods may be compensatory hyperhidrosis of varying severity.