Dermatofibroma is a benign skin tumor formed by mature connective tissue fibers. Externally, the dermatofibroma has the appearance of a gray or brown node rising above the skin; with rounded outlines, dense consistency, smooth or warty surface. Dermatofibroma is characterized by slow growth and lack of tendency to malignant degeneration. Diagnosis is carried out by a dermatologist using dermatoscopy, histological examination of the removed neoplasm. Removal can be performed by electrocoagulation, laser or radio wave destruction, surgical excision.
Dermatofibroma is a benign neoplasm of connective tissue and skin. Its appearance is facilitated by frequent traumatization of the skin, exposure to adverse environmental factors and local infection. In women and people with burdened heredity, dermatofibroma is diagnosed more often. In dermatology, disease is sometimes called histiocytoma, sclerosing hemangioma, angiofibromatosis of the skin. Disease can be solitary and multiple. There are several histological variants of dermatofibroma: cellular, aneurysmal, epithelioid, atypical fibrous histiocytoma.
The question of the causes of the origin of dermatofibroma remains controversial. Most often, microtrauma of the skin, insect bites, previous infectious diseases of the skin are considered as etiological factors. The role of hereditary factor (dermatofibromas are often a “family heritage”) and age-related features (as a rule, dermatofibromas appear in middle age) has been noted. Fibrous histiocytomas often occur in people suffering from acne and liver diseases.
Characteristic morphological features are the interweaving of collagen fibers with inclusions of spindle-shaped cells, proliferation of fibroblasts, excessive amount of pigment in the basal layer, hemosiderin, lipids, capillary germination.
Clinically, the dermatofibroma looks like a single node, in rare cases, the dermatofibroma is multiple in nature. The main part of the tumor is soldered into the skin and only a small part of it protrudes above the surface in the form of a hemisphere. The appearance of a dermatofibroma depends on its structure, how much more modified dermis fibers or connective tissue are in it. Dermatofibroma has rounded outlines, dense consistency and in most cases a smooth surface, although its surface may be hypercarotic or warty. The skin color may not be changed, but more often the dermatofibroma has a slightly brown or grayish tint. There are dermatofibromas of blue-black and red-brown colors.
The size of neoplasms is variable, from small 0.2 cm in diameter to 5-6 cm in. Women of the middle age category get sick more often, while neoplasms are localized mainly on the lower extremities, less often on other parts of the body.
Dermatofibroma is not prone to malignancy and spontaneous growth, there are no subjective symptoms and unpleasant sensations.
Depending on which tissue prevails, the dermatofibroma may have a lobular structure with a folded flabby surface and be located not intradermally, but on the leg. A soft dermatofibroma in size can reach the baby’s head and be localized on the face. A solid dermatofibroma has a very dense surface, since it consists almost entirely of connective tissue, this type can sometimes spontaneously disappear. In some patients, after normalization of the liver, dermatofibromas gradually decrease in size at first, and then disappear.
Diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis is not difficult. It is carried out with the help of dermatoscopy. To confirm the diagnosis of dermatofibroma, cytological and histological examination of the removed tumor is performed. In difficult cases, it may be necessary to consult a dermatooncologist. Disease must be differentiated from pigmented nevus, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma.
Dermatofibromas are not life-threatening, but since they are a cosmetic defect, they resort to their removal. For this purpose, it is possible to use electrocoagulation and radio wave removal. When removed by laser, there are no scars, blood loss is minimal, and the ability to work is restored in a few days.