The field of study of endocrinology is the medical aspects of the structure and functioning of the endocrine glands (or endocrine glands), the study of biologically highly active substances produced by them – hormones and their effects on the body, as well as diseases arising from a violation of the activity of these glands or hormone production.Endocrinology is most closely connected with almost all areas of clinical medicine, because hormones control the most important processes occurring in the body: growth, maturation, reproduction, metabolism, proper functioning of organs and systems.

Modern trends in endocrinology are neuroendocrinology, which studies the relationship between nervous and endocrine regulation of the body, and gynecological endocrinology, which deals with the correction of hormonal disorders in the female body.

The endocrine system combines anatomically unrelated endocrine glands: the epiphysis, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, sex glands. Most diseases of the endocrine glands cause severe violations of vital functions, not excluding death, if you do not consult an endocrinologist in time.

The most urgent problems of modern endocrinology are the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases (diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, thyroid cysts), diabetes mellitus, diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system (acromegaly, gigantism, hypothalamic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, lactation problems, prolactinoma), diseases of the adrenal glands (adrenal insufficiency, adrenal tumors), disorders of the genital glands (endocrine infertility). Today, thanks to the accumulated endocrinology knowledge and practical experience, it is possible to significantly improve the quality of life of patients with endocrine pathology.

Environmental degradation, stress, unbalanced nutrition, burdened heredity often cause disorders in the work of the endocrine glands and lead to the development of endocrine diseases. Diseases of the endocrine system, as a rule, are of a long, severe nature. Therefore, it is important to prevent their occurrence in time, to identify them as early as possible or to prevent the development of their complications.

An appeal to an endocrinologist is necessary if:

  • the next of kin has any endocrine pathology: diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, etc.
  • you are overweight,
  • you have symptoms: increased heartbeat, sweating or dry skin, fatigue or irritability, thirst and increased urination, discoloration of the skin, etc.
  • the child has a delay in mental, physical, sexual development
  • menstrual function is impaired
  • you are planning a pregnancy or are there problems with its onset
  • you already have an endocrine disease and you need monitoring and treatment.

For the diagnosis of endocrine pathology, a comprehensive examination is used, including the study of the patient’s anamnesis, tests for the content of various hormones, ultrasound of the glands, magnetic resonance imaging. Based on the data obtained, the issue of further conservative or surgical treatment is being resolved.

Treatment of endocrine diseases is aimed at correcting hormonal disorders, achieving stable remission of the pathological process and restoring the normal quality of life of the patient.

In the Medical Directory of Diseases on the website “Medic Journal” you will get acquainted with the characteristic features of endocrine diseases. On the website “Medic Journal” you will get all the necessary information about existing methods of prevention.

Endocrine Infertility

Endocrine infertility is a complex of hormonal disorders leading to irregular ovulation or its absence in women and impaired sperm quality in men. It is characterized by the absence of a desired pregnancy in combination with menstrual disorders. Diagnosis of the causes involves a gynecological examination, hormonal examination, carrying out separate diagnostic curettage (SDC) with…

Endocrine Ophthalmopathy

Endocrine ophthalmopathy is an organ-specific progressive lesion of the soft tissues of the orbit and eye, developing against the background of autoimmune pathology of the thyroid gland. The course of endocrine ophthalmopathy is characterized by exophthalmos, diplopia, swelling and inflammation of the eye tissues, limited mobility of the eyeballs, changes in the cornea, intraocular hypertension.…

Endemic Goiter

Endemic goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland, which is caused by insufficient intake of iodine into the body. The disease develops when living in an area poor in this trace element, monotonous diet, lack of individual or group prevention of iodine deficiency. Goiter is manifested by a gradual painless increase in the size…

Ectopic Thyroid

Ectopic thyroid is an atypical location of thyroid tissue in neighboring or distant anatomical structures. In most cases, it is accompanied by hypothyroidism, rarely by thyrotoxicosis. With compression of the neck organs, cough, dysphonia, shortness of breath, dysphagia may occur. Disease can become a source of tumor development. Diagnosis is based on the data of echography,…


Pheochromocytoma is a tumor with a predominant localization in the adrenal medulla, consisting of chromaffin cells and secreting large amounts of catecholamines. Disease is manifested by arterial hypertension and catecholamine hypertensive crises. In order to diagnose pheochromocytoma, provocative tests are carried out, determination of the content of catecholamines and their metabolites in blood and urine,…

Nodular Goiter

Nodular goiter is a group of thyroid diseases that occur with the development of volumetric nodular formations of various origins and morphology in it. Disease may be accompanied by a visible cosmetic defect in the neck, a feeling of compression of the neck, symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Diagnosis is based on data from palpation, ultrasound of…

Thyrotoxic Heart

Thyrotoxic heart is a syndrome of damage to the cardiovascular system in patients with thyrotoxicosis. Pathology mainly occurs with Basal disease, less often its causes are thyroiditis, TSH-producing pituitary tumors, thyroid neoplasm. Symptoms of the disease include tachycardia and other cardiac arrhythmias, signs of heart failure. For diagnosis, ECG and EchoCG, hormonal profile examination, thyroid…

Thyroid Storm

Thyroid storm is an urgent complication of diffuse toxic goiter, provoked by an increase in the activity of thyroid hormones in the blood. It is manifested by fever, sweating, palpitations, shortness of breath, hypertension, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, anxiety and excitement. In severe cases, coma develops, and then death. The diagnosis is established based…

Riedel Thyroiditis

Riedel thyroiditis is a visceral fibromatosis characterized by the replacement of the functional tissue of the thyroid parenchyma with connective tissue. Fibrosis often spreads to the neurovascular bundle of the neck, trachea and esophagus. Patients are concerned about discomfort in the throat area – compression, a feeling of a coma or a foreign body, which…


Thyroiditis is an inflammatory lesion of the thyroid gland of acute, subacute, chronic, autoimmune nature. It is manifested by a feeling of pressure, painful sensations in the neck, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness of voice. With acute inflammation, the formation of an abscess is possible. The progression of the disease causes diffuse changes in the gland and…