The field of study of endocrinology is the medical aspects of the structure and functioning of the endocrine glands (or endocrine glands), the study of biologically highly active substances produced by them – hormones and their effects on the body, as well as diseases arising from a violation of the activity of these glands or hormone production.Endocrinology is most closely connected with almost all areas of clinical medicine, because hormones control the most important processes occurring in the body: growth, maturation, reproduction, metabolism, proper functioning of organs and systems.

Modern trends in endocrinology are neuroendocrinology, which studies the relationship between nervous and endocrine regulation of the body, and gynecological endocrinology, which deals with the correction of hormonal disorders in the female body.

The endocrine system combines anatomically unrelated endocrine glands: the epiphysis, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, sex glands. Most diseases of the endocrine glands cause severe violations of vital functions, not excluding death, if you do not consult an endocrinologist in time.

The most urgent problems of modern endocrinology are the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases (diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, thyroid cysts), diabetes mellitus, diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system (acromegaly, gigantism, hypothalamic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, lactation problems, prolactinoma), diseases of the adrenal glands (adrenal insufficiency, adrenal tumors), disorders of the genital glands (endocrine infertility). Today, thanks to the accumulated endocrinology knowledge and practical experience, it is possible to significantly improve the quality of life of patients with endocrine pathology.

Environmental degradation, stress, unbalanced nutrition, burdened heredity often cause disorders in the work of the endocrine glands and lead to the development of endocrine diseases. Diseases of the endocrine system, as a rule, are of a long, severe nature. Therefore, it is important to prevent their occurrence in time, to identify them as early as possible or to prevent the development of their complications.

An appeal to an endocrinologist is necessary if:

  • the next of kin has any endocrine pathology: diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, etc.
  • you are overweight,
  • you have symptoms: increased heartbeat, sweating or dry skin, fatigue or irritability, thirst and increased urination, discoloration of the skin, etc.
  • the child has a delay in mental, physical, sexual development
  • menstrual function is impaired
  • you are planning a pregnancy or are there problems with its onset
  • you already have an endocrine disease and you need monitoring and treatment.

For the diagnosis of endocrine pathology, a comprehensive examination is used, including the study of the patient’s anamnesis, tests for the content of various hormones, ultrasound of the glands, magnetic resonance imaging. Based on the data obtained, the issue of further conservative or surgical treatment is being resolved.

Treatment of endocrine diseases is aimed at correcting hormonal disorders, achieving stable remission of the pathological process and restoring the normal quality of life of the patient.

In the Medical Directory of Diseases on the website “Medic Journal” you will get acquainted with the characteristic features of endocrine diseases. On the website “Medic Journal” you will get all the necessary information about existing methods of prevention.

Milk-Alkali Syndrome

Milk-alkali syndrome is a dysmetabolic disease that develops after ingestion of reabsorbed alkalis: milk, calcium carbonate, magnesium. It is characterized by hypercalcemia and alkalinization of the body. It is manifested by aversion to dairy food, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, apathy, itching of the skin. Kidney function is disrupted, joint and muscle pain occur. Diagnostics includes…

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic endocrine disease that develops due to insulin resistance and dysfunction of beta cells of the pancreas, characterized by a state of hyperglycemia. It is manifested by copious urination (polyuria), increased thirst (polydipsia), itching of the skin and mucous membranes, increased appetite, hot flashes, muscle weakness. The diagnosis is established based…

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an endocrine disease characterized by insufficient insulin production and an increase in blood glucose levels. Due to prolonged hyperglycemia, patients suffer from thirst, lose weight, and get tired quickly. Muscle and headache, cramps, itching, increased appetite, frequent urination, insomnia, hot flashes are characteristic. Diagnostics includes a clinical survey, laboratory tests of blood…

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder, which is based on a deficiency in the formation of its own insulin and an increase in blood glucose levels. It is manifested by a feeling of thirst, an increase in the amount of urine excreted, increased appetite, weakness, dizziness, slow healing of wounds, etc. The disease is…

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is a malignant nodular formation that develops from the follicular or parafollicular (C-cells) epithelium of the thyroid gland. There are follicular, papillary, medullary, anaplastic cancer and thyroid lymphoma, as well as its metastatic lesions. Clinically, thyroid cancer is manifested by difficulty swallowing, a feeling of compression and sore throat, hoarseness, cough, weight loss,…

Parathyroid Cancer

Parathyroid cancer is a malignant formation of the parathyroid gland (PTG), occurring with severe hyperparathyroidism. The clinic of the disease is characterized by hypercalcemia (anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, thirst, polyuria, bone pain, muscle weakness, lethargy), dysphonia, the presence of a palpable tumor in the neck. Osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, arrhythmias develop. Pathology is diagnosed according to the…


Pseudohypoparathyroidism (Albright’s disease) is a hereditary osteodystrophy caused by the resistance of peripheral tissues to parathyroid hormone, which is accompanied by a disorder of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, a delay in physical and mental development. Pseudohypoparathyroidism occurs with the phenomena of diffuse osteoporosis, tonic convulsions, fractures and deformities of bones, calcium deposition in muscles and vessels, formation…


Prolactinoma is a hormone–active tumor of the anterior pituitary gland that produces an excessive amount of the hormone prolactin. It is manifested by pathological milk secretion unrelated to childbirth (galactorrhea), irregular menstruation or their absence in women, decreased potency and sexual desire in men, with tumor progression – headache, impaired vision and consciousness. Depending on…

Lactation Problems

Lactation problems – various disorders of the secretory and excretory functions of the mammary glands, manifested by states of galactorrhea, hypogalactia, agalactia, lactostasis, etc. In nursing women after childbirth, hypogalactia is most common – insufficient milk production, as a rule, corrected by the correct technique and feeding regime. Pathological milk excretion from the mammary glands,…


Preobesity is an intermediate stage between normal body weight and obesity. This condition is characterized by an increase in weight by 15-20% of the norm. The disease is manifested by fatty deposits, shortness of breath, excessive sweating, an increase in blood pressure, a violation of glucose tolerance. Preobesity is diagnosed by calculating the body mass…