The field of study of endocrinology is the medical aspects of the structure and functioning of the endocrine glands (or endocrine glands), the study of biologically highly active substances produced by them – hormones and their effects on the body, as well as diseases arising from a violation of the activity of these glands or hormone production.Endocrinology is most closely connected with almost all areas of clinical medicine, because hormones control the most important processes occurring in the body: growth, maturation, reproduction, metabolism, proper functioning of organs and systems.

Modern trends in endocrinology are neuroendocrinology, which studies the relationship between nervous and endocrine regulation of the body, and gynecological endocrinology, which deals with the correction of hormonal disorders in the female body.

The endocrine system combines anatomically unrelated endocrine glands: the epiphysis, pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, sex glands. Most diseases of the endocrine glands cause severe violations of vital functions, not excluding death, if you do not consult an endocrinologist in time.

The most urgent problems of modern endocrinology are the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases (diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, thyroid cysts), diabetes mellitus, diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system (acromegaly, gigantism, hypothalamic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, lactation problems, prolactinoma), diseases of the adrenal glands (adrenal insufficiency, adrenal tumors), disorders of the genital glands (endocrine infertility). Today, thanks to the accumulated endocrinology knowledge and practical experience, it is possible to significantly improve the quality of life of patients with endocrine pathology.

Environmental degradation, stress, unbalanced nutrition, burdened heredity often cause disorders in the work of the endocrine glands and lead to the development of endocrine diseases. Diseases of the endocrine system, as a rule, are of a long, severe nature. Therefore, it is important to prevent their occurrence in time, to identify them as early as possible or to prevent the development of their complications.

An appeal to an endocrinologist is necessary if:

  • the next of kin has any endocrine pathology: diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, etc.
  • you are overweight,
  • you have symptoms: increased heartbeat, sweating or dry skin, fatigue or irritability, thirst and increased urination, discoloration of the skin, etc.
  • the child has a delay in mental, physical, sexual development
  • menstrual function is impaired
  • you are planning a pregnancy or are there problems with its onset
  • you already have an endocrine disease and you need monitoring and treatment.

For the diagnosis of endocrine pathology, a comprehensive examination is used, including the study of the patient’s anamnesis, tests for the content of various hormones, ultrasound of the glands, magnetic resonance imaging. Based on the data obtained, the issue of further conservative or surgical treatment is being resolved.

Treatment of endocrine diseases is aimed at correcting hormonal disorders, achieving stable remission of the pathological process and restoring the normal quality of life of the patient.

In the Medical Directory of Diseases on the website “Medic Journal” you will get acquainted with the characteristic features of endocrine diseases. On the website “Medic Journal” you will get all the necessary information about existing methods of prevention.

Adrenogenital Syndrome

Adrenogenital syndrome is a hereditary disease of the adrenal glands, in which steroidogenesis is disrupted due to the functional failure of enzymes. It is manifested by virilization of the genitals, masculine physique, breast underdevelopment, hirsutism, acne, amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea, infertility. During the diagnosis, the levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17-ketosteroids, androstenedione, ACTH are determined, ultrasound of the…


Thyrotropinoma is a benign neoplasm of the pituitary gland that produces thyroid—stimulating hormone. It is manifested by symptoms of hyperthyroidism, ophthalmic disorders, intracranial hypertension, secondary hypopituitarism. Diagnosis is carried out according to anamnesis, hormonal examination, visometry, perimetry, brain MRI, ultrasound of thyroid tissue. Conservative therapy includes the appointment of thyrotropin secretion inhibitors. Surgical treatment consists…

Adiposogenital Dystrophy

Adiposogenital dystrophy is a neuroendocrine pathology manifested by overweight and underdevelopment of the genital glands. It is accompanied by gynoid-type obesity and a lag in sexual development. Diagnosis is based on a physical examination by a pediatrician or endocrinologist, a study of the hormonal background. Additionally, radiography and tomography of the hypothalamic-pituitary region are prescribed.…

Thyroid Adenoma

Thyroid adenoma is a benign nodular neoplasm of thyroid tissue. Thyroid adenoma may be asymptomatic or manifest signs of hyperthyroidism (weight loss, weakness, tachycardia, sweating, etc.), compression of the neck organs. Diagnosis of thyroid adenoma consists in ultrasound, hormonal studies (T3, T4, TSH, TG), X-ray of the esophagus, puncture biopsy of the gland and cytological…

Parathyroid Adenoma

Parathyroid adenoma is a benign hormone-active tumor of the parathyroid gland, accompanied by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone and hyperparathyroidism. With parathyroid adenoma, hypercalcemia develops, which can manifest itself as bone (osteoporosis, pathological fractures), renal (nephrolithiasis), gastrointestinal (gastric ulcer, pancreatitis), cardiovascular (arterial hypertension) clinical syndromes. Diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma includes laboratory tests (determination of the…

Abdominal Obesity

Abdominal obesity is a disease accompanied by the deposition of excess fat in the trunk and internal organs. The main signs are a waist circumference of more than 100 cm, systematic overeating, craving for sweets, increased thirst. Arterial hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, apathy, drowsiness, fatigue, chronic constipation and other digestive disorders are often determined. The…

MODY Diabetes

MODY diabetes is a group of clinically similar forms of diabetes mellitus with an autosomal dominant inheritance pathway. The disease manifests itself in childhood and adolescence. The main symptoms are frequent urge to urinate and an increase in urine volume, increased thirst and appetite, weight loss, redness of the skin, an increase in body temperature.…

LADA diabetes

LADA diabetes is a slowly progressive disorder of carbohydrate metabolism of autoimmune origin, manifesting in adulthood. The symptoms are similar to the manifestations of diabetes mellitus in general: increased thirst, polyuria, pollakiuria, hunger, constant fatigue and drowsiness. Weight loss is characteristic. Diagnostics is carried out by laboratory methods, including the determination of blood glucose, HbA1c,…

Addisonian Crisis

Addisonian crisis is a severe endocrine disorder that develops as a result of a sudden pronounced decrease or absolute cessation of hormone synthesis by the adrenal cortex. It is manifested by adynamia, decreased blood pressure, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, acetone smell from the mouth, acetonuria, convulsions. In severe cases, dehydration, collapse, confusion,…