Urology as a field of medical science is engaged in the study of the urinary and related human reproductive system, the physiological and pathological processes occurring in them, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases of the genitourinary organs (urethra, bladder, ureters, kidneys, male genitalia). The sphere of interests of urology as a science intersects with other areas of clinical medicine: gynecology, andrology, venereology, nephrology, surgery. A urologist is engaged in the treatment and prevention of pathology of the genitourinary system of men and women.
Urological diseases of men, women, children and the elderly have their own peculiarities of development and course, which is explained by the anatomical, physiological and age characteristics of their organisms. Among the pathology of the male genitourinary system, inflammatory processes (orchitis and epididymitis, urethritis, balanoposthitis, prostatitis, cystitis), prostate adenoma, sexual infections are more common. Female urological diseases are urethritis, cystitis, sexually transmitted infections and their consequences. Both men and women have urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, tumors of the genitourinary organs, chronic renal failure. In childhood, congenital anomalies of the genitourinary system, cystitis and enuresis are more common. In elderly people, urinary incontinence and tumor formations come to the fore among urological problems.
The most common manifestations of diseases of the genitourinary system are disorders of urination (increased frequency or delay), pain in the lumbar region, in the genital area, burning and itching of the genitals, pathological discharge from the urethra, disorder of sexual function, changes in the amount or color of urine, edema.
Diseases of the genitourinary system are by no means harmless. Their consequences lead to the development of chronic foci of infection, impotence, infertility, the need for a donor kidney transplant and even death. For a man, a urologist is as important a doctor as a gynecologist is for a woman. Therefore, regardless of complaints, visits to the urologist should be regular, at least 1-2 times a year.
Modern diagnostic capabilities of urology are very great. Laboratory methods of urine and urethral discharge, ultrasound and X-ray diagnostics, endoscopic (urethroscopy and cystoscopy), instrumental (puncture biopsy, catheterization, augmentation), measuring diagnostic methods (cystometry, urofluometry), etc. are used.
Treatment of urogenital pathology has its own specific features. Since many urological diseases are sexually transmitted, both sexual partners need to undergo appropriate treatment. Diseases of the genitourinary system are an intimate sphere of human life, therefore, the doctor is required to show maximum delicacy and psychological support for patients in their treatment. Urological diseases affect the sexual function of men and women, so their adequate and timely treatment allows you to preserve sexual health and family well-being. Surgical treatment of urological problems can be aimed not only at normalizing the work of the genitourinary apparatus, but also at aesthetic correction, which allows patients to get rid of many psychological complexes.
In the heading “Urological diseases” of the Medical Directory of Diseases on the website “Medic Journal” you will find a description of the most common diseases of the genitourinary system, which will allow you to seek qualified medical care in a timely manner.

pulmonary arteriovenous malformation

Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation is a congenital vascular anomaly characterized by the presence of direct communication between the branches of the pulmonary artery and the pulmonary veins and the discharge of non–oxygenated blood into the arterial bed. In the clinic of PAVM, signs of arterial hypoxemia prevail: cyanosis, shortness of breath, weakness, deformation of the distal…

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a malignant lesion of the hematopoiesis system, accompanied by an uncontrolled increase in the number of lymphoblasts. It is manifested by anemia, symptoms of intoxication, enlarged lymph nodes, liver and spleen, increased bleeding and respiratory disorders. Due to a decrease in immunity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, infectious diseases often develop. CNS…

renal echinococcosis

Renal Echinococcosis

Renal echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by small tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The symptoms are variable and correlate with the evolution of a cystic tumor and its localization. Small formations may not be clinically manifested for several decades, with growth, lumbar pain, unexplained hyperthermia, weakness are bothering. Diagnosis is based on ultrasound, CT or…



Epididymitis is an inflammatory process in the appendage of the testicle. This urological pathology is rarely found in isolation and is usually combined with orchitis, urethritis. The main symptoms include pain in the groin area, swelling, temperature reaction. Dysuric disorders and discharge from the urethra in some cases precede the appearance of acute epididymitis. Diagnosis…



Enuresis is a syndrome of involuntary, uncontrolled urination, urinary incontinence, mainly during sleep. It is more common in preschool and early school age children with a history of concomitant neurological pathology. Causes psychological trauma in the child, conflicts with peers in the team, punishment by parents in the family, neuroses, which further aggravates the course…

ectopiс ureter

Ectopiс Ureter

Ectopiс ureter is a congenital anomaly of the topography of the ureter, consisting in an atypical intravesical or extra–vesical location of its mouth. With extra-bubble ectopia, involuntary leakage of urine is noted against the background of preserved urination; intravesical types of abnormalities are accompanied by the development of pyelonephritis and ureterohydronephrosis. Diagnostics may include ultrasound, cystoscopy…



Cystocele is the lowering of the bladder into the vagina due to the failure of the pelvic diaphragm. It is manifested by the sensation of a foreign body in the vagina, urinary retention, urinary incontinence, dyspareunia, pain in the lower abdomen and lower back. It is diagnosed by vaginal examination, ultrasound of the urethra and…



Cystitis is an inflammation of the walls of the bladder. It is characterized by frequent (every 15-20 minutes), sharply painful urination in small portions, sometimes with an admixture of blood, subfebrile body temperature. The transition of the disease into a chronic form, the ascent of infection with the development of an inflammatory process in the…

chronic cystitis

Chronic Cystitis

Chronic cystitis is a long–term inflammation of the bladder, leading to structural and functional changes in the walls of the organ. Pathology can occur latently, with alternating exacerbations and remissions, or with constant symptoms. Diagnosis is carried out based on the results of urine tests, vaginal microflora in women, STD tests, ultrasound of the urinary…

chronic prostatitis

Chronic Prostatitis

Chronic prostatitis is a prolonged inflammation of the prostate gland, leading to a violation of the morphology and functioning of the prostate. It is manifested by a prostatic triad: pain in the pelvis and genitals, urination disorders, sexual disorders. Diagnostics includes palpation of the gland, examination of prostate secretions, ultrasound, uroflowmetry, urethroscopy, puncture biopsy of…